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Dear all,

my name is Michael Haenlein and I am Associate Professor of Marketing at the business school ESCP Europe in Paris, France.

I am currently working on a research paper that investigates social influences in customer retention. Specifically, I'm using data from a telecommunications company to analyze whether customers are more likely to cancel their contract when one (or several) of their friends have canceled their contracts recently. One characteristic of my analysis is that I work with a directed network since I can differentiate between incoming calls (i.e., A calls B) and outgoing calls (i.e., B calls A).

I know that social influence in acquisition and retention has previously been studied extensively. Yet, most studies I am aware off work with undirected networks. To better position my work, I would like to refer to prior literature that has shown that analyzing undirected networks can lead to a bias when the underlying network is actually directed.

Is anyone aware of a study that has, for example, replicated a previous analysis that was based on undirected networks with directed networks and came to different conclusions? Or is there any other work I can refer to in order to prove my point that moving from directed to undirected can have a significant impact on results?

Thanks very much for your help in advance,



Michael Haenlein
Associate Professor of Marketing
ESCP Europe
Paris, France
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