***** To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org ***** Phase transitions always remind me of the "Ropes and Pulleys" kinetic scultpture at the NY Hall of Science. You can turn those wheels for what seems like forever, and nothing will happen. Then, all of a sudden, whammo! link here: http://www.nysci.org/explore/exhibitions/connections_summary/connectionsExhibits & video here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eeeDvReDShA Annelies Z. Kamran Ph.D. candidate, Political Science The Graduate Center The City University of New York 365 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10016 [log in to unmask]<mailto:[log in to unmask]> http://sites.google.com/site/annelieskamran/homepage-annelieskamran<http://annelies.kamran.googlepages.com/homepage-annelieskamran> ________________________________ From: Social Networks Discussion Forum [[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of John McCreery [[log in to unmask]] Sent: Monday, January 09, 2012 1:25 AM To: [log in to unmask] Subject: From Complexity Digest ***** To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org ***** OK, this week I am going to be really, really lazy. The digest editor's top four picks are my top four as well. Let me explain why. History fascinates me and this is a big election year. The pundits are going crazy. It is clear that none of the standard models used to predict election outcomes are predicting worth a damn. Is the US or the world as a whole entering a phase state? If so, from what to what is a hugely interesting question. 01. Crisis response: The new history , Nature Excerpt: The nature of discontinuous change is often misunderstood. It is sometimes said — this is literally how traditional economists defend their failure to predict the ongoing financial and national-debt crises — that no one can be expected to foresee such radical departures from the quotidian. They emerge, like a hijacked aircraft, out of a clear blue sky. Yet social and political discontinuities are rarely, if ever, random in that sense, even if their immediate triggers have a certain arbitrary character. Rather, they are abrupt in the same way, and for the same reasons, that phase transitions are abrupt in physics. In complex systems, including social ones, discontinuities don't reflect profound changes in the governing forces; they derive from the interactions and feedbacks between the component parts. Discontinuities are therefore precisely what you would expect if you consider today's societies from a complex-systems perspective. *  Crisis response: The new history, Philip Ball, 2011/12/21, DOI: 10.1038/480447a, Nature 480, 447–448  http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/480447a I'm a sucker for stuff about bees. Add a brain science angle. What's not to like. Plus, "In both, separate populations of units (bees or neurons) integrate noisy evidence for alternatives, and, when one population exceeds a threshold, the alternative it represents is chosen" Sounds a hell of a lot like the Republican primaries to me. _________________________________________________________________ 02. Stop Signals Provide Cross Inhibition in Collective Decision-Making by Honeybee Swarms , Science Abstract: Honeybee swarms and complex brains show many parallels in how they make decisions. In both, separate populations of units (bees or neurons) integrate noisy evidence for alternatives, and, when one population exceeds a threshold, the alternative it represents is chosen. We show that a key feature of a brain—cross inhibition between the evidence-accumulating populations—also exists in a swarm as it chooses its nesting site. Nest-site scouts send inhibitory stop signals to other scouts producing waggle dances, causing them to cease dancing, and each scout targets scouts’ reporting sites other than her own. An analytic model shows that cross inhibition between populations of scout bees increases the reliability of swarm decision-making by solving the problem of deadlock over equal sites. *  Stop Signals Provide Cross Inhibition in Collective Decision-Making by Honeybee Swarms, Thomas D. Seeley, P. Kirk Visscher· Thomas Schlegel, Patrick M. Hogan, Nigel R. Franks, James A. R. Marshall, 2012/01/06, DOI: 10.1126/science.1210361, Science Vol. 335 no. 6064 pp. 108-111  http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1210361 These two speak to issues I've wondered about for years. Back in the 1980s, I was writing advertising for computers and communications that assumed making data infinitely available to everybody would usher in utopia. What we got instead was winner-take-all markets and, if Eli Paliser is right, market fragmentation right down to one-on-one, don't disturb me in my cocoon. _________________________________________________________________ 03. The Open Knowledge Foundation: Open Data Means Better Science , PLoS Biol Excerpt: Data provides the evidence for the published body of scientific knowledge, which is the foundation for all scientific progress. The more data is made openly available in a useful manner, the greater the level of transparency and reproducibility and hence the more efficient the scientific process becomes, to the benefit of society. This viewpoint is becoming mainstream among many funders, publishers, scientists, and other stakeholders in research, but barriers to achieving widespread publication of open data remain. The Open Data in Science working group at the Open Knowledge Foundation is a community that works to develop tools, applications, datasets, and guidelines to promote the open sharing of scientific data. *  The Open Knowledge Foundation: Open Data Means Better Science, Jennifer C. Molloy, 2011/12/6, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001195, PLoS Biol 9(12): e1001195.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001195 _________________________________________________________________ 04. To Know, but Not Understand: David Weinberger on Science and Big Data , The Atlantic Excerpt:  Thomas Jefferson and George Washington recorded daily weather observations, but they didn't record them hourly or by the minute. Not only did they have other things to do, such data didn't seem useful. Even after the invention of the telegraph enabled the centralization of weather data, the 150 volunteers who received weather instruments from the Smithsonian Institution in 1849 still reported only once a day. Now there is a literally immeasurable, continuous stream of climate data from satellites circling the earth, buoys bobbing in the ocean, and Wi-Fi-enabled sensors in the rain forest. We are measuring temperatures, rainfall, wind speeds, C02 levels, and pressure pulses of solar wind. All this data and much, much more became worth recording once we could record it, once we could process it with computers, and once we could connect the data streams and the data processors with a network. How will we ever make sense of scientific topics that are too big to know? The short answer: by transforming what it means to know something scientifically. *  To Know, but Not Understand: David Weinberger on Science and Big Data, 2012/01/03, The Atlantic  http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0465021425/ref=as_li_ss_il?ie=UTF8&tag=complexes-20&linkCode=as2&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0465021425  http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/01/to-know-but-not-understand-david-weinberger-on-science-and-big-data/250820/ -- John McCreery The Word Works, Ltd., Yokohama, JAPAN Tel. +81-45-314-9324 [log in to unmask]<mailto:[log in to unmask]> http://www.wordworks.jp/ _____________________________________________________________________ SOCNET is a service of INSNA, the professional association for social network researchers (http://www.insna.org). 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