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The Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations (January 2012)

The Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations was first
proposed by Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff in 1995 and further elaborated into a
model for studying knowledge-based economies by Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff
(2000) and Leydesdorff (2006). A series of workshops, conferences, and
special issues of journals have developed under this title since 1996. In
various countries, the Triple Helix concept has also been used as an
operational strategy for regional development and to further the
knowledge-based economy. This short review (4000 words) provides an update
(in January 2012) of the further elaborations of various Triple Helix models
(such as a neo-institutional versus neo-evolutionary version). The surplus
of using different models is specified in terms of research strategies.
Using Triple Helix indicators, one can evaluate to what extent an innovation
system is nationally, regionally, or technologically integrated. 
** apologies for cross-postings

Loet Leydesdorff 
Professor, University of Amsterdam
Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR)
Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam.
Tel. +31-20-525 6598; fax: +31-842239111
[log in to unmask] ; 
Visiting Professor, ISTIC, Beijing; Honorary Fellow, SPRU, University of

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