***** To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org ***** *If you missed Sunbelt XXXII, you missed a great learning opportunity that was also a great time. Three cheers for Tom Valenti and the rest of the team that put this together for us.* * * *Still a bit jet-lagged here in Japan. The following recommendations are simply what caught my blurry eyes this morning. * Complexity Digest 2012.06 2012/03/16 *Predictable. Scary. Bears repeating.* 01. Navigating the Anthropocene: Improving Earth System Governance , Science Excerpt: Science assessments indicate that human activities are moving several of Earth's sub-systems outside the range of natural variability typical for the previous 500,000 years. Human societies must now change course and steer away from critical tipping points in the Earth system that might lead to rapid and irreversible change. This requires fundamental reorientation and restructuring of national and international institutions toward more effective Earth system governance and planetary stewardship. *  Navigating the Anthropocene: Improving Earth System Governance, F. Biermann, et al., 2012/03/16, DOI: 10.1126/science.1217255, Science Vol. 335 no. 6074 pp. 1306-1307  http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1217255 _________________________________________________________________ *"global, population-wide behavior that one observes often bears no relation to the individual processes it stems from."* *What does this signify for agent-based modeling?* 02. From Local to Global Dilemmas in Social Networks , PLoS ONE Excerpt: Social networks affect in such a fundamental way the dynamics of the population they support that the global, population-wide behavior that one observes often bears no relation to the individual processes it stems from. Up to now, linking the global networked dynamics to such individual mechanisms has remained elusive. *  From Local to Global Dilemmas in Social Networks, Pinheiro FL , Pacheco JM , Santos FC, March 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032114, PLoS ONE 7(2): e32114 * Contributed by  Segismundo  http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032114  http://segis.name _________________________________________________________________ *Humpback whales and quantum mechanics. Is this the Dao of Physics or something* *really cool? Looks like the "reduction phenomenon" is something worth learning about.* 03. Universal Theory on Growth and Mixing , PNAS Summary: What do humpback whales returning to calve in the waters of Maui have to do with the ground state energy of a quantum system? Both exhibit a mathematical property called the "reduction phenomenon", which can be described very simply: mixing reduces growth, and differential growth selects for reduced mixing. The phenomenon underlies the Reduction Principle for the evolution of recombination, mutation, and dispersal rates, as well as recent results in reaction-diffusion models of dispersal. Animals returning to their birth places to give birth exemplify operation of the Reduction Principle through philopatry. In molecular genetics it is manifest as error-free DNA repair. In cultural evolution models it is manifest as traditionalism. Yet, departures from reduction are abundant, such as recombination and dispersal. How can sense be made of the complexity of outcomes? Two new papers describes mathematical results that extend the reduction phenomenon to infinite dimensional operators, and investigate departures from reduction which follow the "Principle of Partial Control". A new population statistic, the "fitness-abundance covariance", links ecological properties to the reduction phenomenon. See Also: The Evolution of Dispersal in Random Environments and The Principle of Partial Control, Lee Altenberg DOI: 10.1890/11-1136.1 *  Resolvent positive linear operators exhibit the reduction phenomenon, Lee Altenberg, 2012/02/22, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1113833109, PNAS  http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1113833109 _________________________________________________________________ *OWS 2.0?* * * 05. Jennifer Pahlka: Coding a better government , TED.com About this talk: Can government be run like the Internet, permissionless and open? Coder and activist Jennifer Pahlka believes it can -- and that apps, built quickly and cheaply, are a powerful new way to connect citizens to their governments -- and their neighbors. *  Jennifer Pahlka: Coding a better government, 2012/03, TED.com * VIDEO -  Watch this talk  http://www.ted.com/talks/jennifer_pahlka_coding_a_better_government.html  http://www.ted.com/talks/jennifer_pahlka_coding_a_better_government.html _________________________________________________________________ *  The Future of Complexity Engineering, Frei, R. and Di Marzo Serugendo, G, 2012/03, Central European Journal of Engineering  http://www.reginafrei.ch/pdf/future-of-CE-v11.pdf _________________________________________________________________ *Fundamental insight or Luddite obfuscation? You be the judge.* * * 07. Learning, Social Intelligence and the Turing Test - why an "out-of-the-box" Turing Machine will not pass the Turing Test , arXiv Excerpt: The Turing Test (TT) checks for human intelligence, rather than any putative general intelligence. It involves repeated interaction requiring learning in the form of adaption to the human conversation partner. It is a macro-level post-hoc test in contrast to the definition of a Turing Machine (TM), which is a prior micro-level definition. This raises the question of whether learning is just another computational process, i.e. can be implemented as a TM. Here we argue that learning or adaption is fundamentally different from computation, though it does involve processes that can be seen as computations. (…) We conclude three things, namely that: a purely "designed" TM will never pass the TT; that there is no such thing as a general intelligence since it necessary involves learning; and that learning/adaption and computation should be clearly distinguished. *  Learning, Social Intelligence and the Turing Test - why an "out-of-the-box" Turing Machine will not pass the Turing Test, Bruce Edmonds and Carlos Gershenson, 2012/03/15, arXiv:1203.3376  http://arXiv.org/abs/1203.3376 ________________________________________________________________ *OK, I work in advertising, have long been fascinated with classic ideas about skirt heights and stock markets, and the Social Networks and Art session at Sunbelt XXXII was intriguing.* 09. The Logic of Fashion Cycles , PLoS ONE Excerpt: Many cultural traits exhibit volatile dynamics, commonly dubbed fashions or fads. Here we show that realistic fashion-like dynamics emerge spontaneously if individuals can copy others' preferences for cultural traits as well as traits themselves. *  The Logic of Fashion Cycles, Acerbi A , Ghirlanda S , Enquist M, March 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032541, PLoS ONE 7(3): e32541 * Contributed by  Segismundo  http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032541  http://segis.name _________________________________________________________________ *Reports of non-human species engaged in cultural learning have been appearing in growing numbers. * *Let's see what this adds...* * * 09.01. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning , Journal of Theoretical Biology Excerpt: Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. *  Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning, Ehn M , Laland K, February 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2012.02.004, Journal of Theoretical Biology, in Press * Contributed by  Segismundo  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2012.02.004  http://segis.name _________________________________________________________________ *Market fundamentalists are going to hate this one.* 12. Entropy and equilibrium state of free market models , Eur. Phys. J. B Abstract: Many recent models of trade dynamics use the simple idea of wealth exchanges among economic agents in order to obtain a stable or equilibrium distribution of wealth among the agents. In particular, a plain analogy compares the wealth in a society with the energy in a physical system, and the trade between agents to the energy exchange between molecules during collisions. In physical systems, the energy exchange among molecules leads to a state of equipartition of the energy and to an equilibrium situation where the entropy is a maximum. On the other hand, in a large class of exchange models, the system converges to a very unequal condensed state, where one or a few agents concentrate all the wealth of the society while the wide majority of agents shares zero or almost zero fraction of the wealth. So, in those economic systems a minimum entropy state is attained. We propose here an analytical model where we investigate the effects of a particular class of economic exchanges that minimize the entropy. By solving the model we discuss the conditions that can drive the system to a state of minimum entropy, as well as the mechanisms to recover a kind of equipartition of wealth. *  Entropy and equilibrium state of free market models, J.R. Iglesias and R.M.C. de Almeida, 2012/03/5, DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2012-21036-1, Eur. Phys. J. B 85: 85  http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2012-21036-1 _________________________________________________________________ *For all us serious methods geeks.* * * 13. Removing spurious interactions in complex networks , Phys. Rev. E Abstract: Identifying and removing spurious links in complex networks is meaningful for many real applications and is crucial for improving the reliability of network data, which, in turn, can lead to a better understanding of the highly interconnected nature of various social, biological, and communication systems. In this paper, we study the features of different simple spurious link elimination methods, revealing that they may lead to the distortion of networks’ structural and dynamical properties. Accordingly, we propose a hybrid method that combines similarity-based index and edge-betweenness centrality. We show that our method can effectively eliminate the spurious interactions while leaving the network connected and preserving the network's functionalities. *  Removing spurious interactions in complex networks, An Zeng and Giulio Cimini, 2012/03/5, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.036101, Phys. Rev. E 85, 036101  http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.85.036101 _________________________________________________________________ *I'd like to hear what Tom Valenti has to say about this one.* 15. Identifying influential spreaders and efficiently estimating the number of infections in epidemic models: a path counting approach , arXiv Abstract: We introduce a new method to efficiently approximate the number of infections resulting from a given initially-infected node in a network of susceptible individuals, based on counting the number of possible infection paths of various lengths to each other node in the network. We analytically study the properties of our method systematically, in particular demonstrating different forms for SIS and SIR disease spreading (e.g. under the SIR model our method counts self-avoiding walks). In comparison to existing methods to infer the spreading efficiency of different nodes in the network (based on degree, k-shell decomposition analysis and different centrality measures), our method directly considers the spreading process, and as such is unique in providing estimation of actual numbers of infections. Crucially, in simulating infections on various real-world networks with the SIR model, we show that our walks-based method improves the inference of effectiveness of nodes over a wide range of infection rates compared to existing methods. We also analyse the trade-off between estimate accuracy and computational cost of our method, showing that the better accuracy here can still be obtained at a comparable computational cost to other methods. *  Identifying influential spreaders and efficiently estimating the number of infections in epidemic models: a path counting approach, Frank Bauer, Joseph T. Lizier, 2012/03/02, arXiv:1203.0502  http://arXiv.org/abs/1203.0502 _________________________________________________________________ -- John McCreery The Word Works, Ltd., Yokohama, JAPAN Tel. +81-45-314-9324 [log in to unmask] http://www.wordworks.jp/ _____________________________________________________________________ SOCNET is a service of INSNA, the professional association for social network researchers (http://www.insna.org). To unsubscribe, send an email message to [log in to unmask] containing the line UNSUBSCRIBE SOCNET in the body of the message.