I went through a similar experience as you, Saundra, and felt I needed
to stop using the cone.

Instead, I share some results from peer reviewed studies with my tutors.

For a classic: Bloom (1953) shows how students in lecture classes have
more distracted thoughts than those in discussion-based classes.

I also like Lake (2001) where an instructor notes that students in a
course with discussion do better than those in a standard
lecture-based course [it was the same instructor... different
semesters] BUT the students in the lecture class thought both the
course and instructor were more effective.  It generates a discussion
that even though it's good for our students to talk out their thinking
process, they may not like it.


Bloom, B. S. (1953). Thought processes in lecture and discussion.
Journal of General Education, 7,

Lake, D. A. (2001). Student performance and perceptions of a
lecture-based course compared with the
same course utilizing group discussion. Physical Therapy, 81(3), 896902.

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