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Positive Psychology and Personality Psychology research provides good insights as well.  As for my dissertation, through BU, I would guess. I don't think you want the dusty copy on my shelf here  ;-)..............

-----Original Message-----
From: Open Forum for Learning Assistance Professionals [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of Cleveland, Prof. John P.
Sent: Wednesday, May 02, 2012 2:54 PM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Re: Literature on students who do not come for tutoring

Hi Laurie,

Thanks so much for your helpful insights.  While I think and read up on these issues, my training is not in developmental psychology, so I have some reading to do.  And, yes, Laurie, how can we access your dissertation?  Since my background is in philosophy, I think I will also tie in elements of Aristotle's notion of "akrasia" (weakness of will, or knowing the good and not doing the good, or failure to perform the virtues).

Best,

John Cleveland

-----Original Message-----
From: Open Forum for Learning Assistance Professionals [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of Laurie Hazard
Sent: Wednesday, May 02, 2012 2:34 PM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Re: Literature on students who do not come for tutoring

Hi All,

I have been hanging back reading all of this.   While this research is not directly related to tutoring, it is related to help-seeking behavior and the extent to which students get involved in the pursuit of achievement, as well as the extent to which students will apply the study strategies taught to them.  It goes back to the old dichotomy in psychology between behaviors (help seeking behavior, utilizing study strategies, going to tutoring) and mental processes (mindsets, attitudes, thoughts, feeling, etc.). Indeed, there are personality traits and attitudinal variables that mediate academic achievement.  This is at the heart of my dissertation research (1997), and my research since then, so I won't bore you with all of that, but I will tell you some basic findings that still certainly hold up:

If students have an internal locus of control; they are: more likely to utilize study habits that have been taught to them, and seek out help like going to tutoring. The professor makes the tests too hard, tutoring won't help! (externality).  I know if I work hard and put in some effort, I can do well in this class (internality), so I think I will go to tutoring.  LOC predicts college achievement with greater variance that SAT and HS grades combined.  As an aside, recent personality psychology research says, as a culture, population norms toward externality are increasing (you may be familiar with Jean  Twenge's research.  She is the author of Generation Me.  In essence, we are shoveling  **&^%$  against the tide in this respect.  Some more gems for you:

From 1960 to 2002 , college students increasingly believed that their lives were controlled by outside forces as opposed to their own efforts

The average college student in 2002 had a more external loc than 80% of college students in the 60's

As individualism has increased, so too has externality

Lefcourt (1991) describes externality as  a "failure to act in one's own behalf in trying to remedy unpleasant situations, in the face of potential stress, or in trying to bring about rewarding outcomes

Internal locus of control has been found to be the strongest predictor of achievement with minority  students than any other variable (Coleman et al., 1966)

Externality encourages a victim mentality that attributes negative experiences to  outside sources, which, in turn, undermines personal responsibility.

OK, so Lefcourt's findings about the ability in act in one's own behalf is certainly compelling related to this discussion.

We are all familiar with Carol Dweck and her book Mindset, correct?  Her early research focused on a personality variable called "conceptions of intelligence."  She defined this variable on a continuum: incremental (now a she calls this a growth mindset) and entity view (fixed mindset). People tend to hold one of the two views.  My intelligence is inborn and I can't change it: ENTITY.  Through hard work and effort, I can become smarter: INCREMENTAL.  My mom sucks at math and she passed this gene down to me.  I was born with it.  All the tutoring in the world won't help.  Why should I bother to go? (ENTITY).

My bias, but if we don't address the attitudinal variables in our first-year programs, orientations, learning centers, and challenge students on these mindsets in our appointments with them, etc., we can't hope for behavior change.

Tip of the old iceberg here, but maybe food for thought in this conversation:

Dweck, C.S. & Leggett, E.L. (1988). A Social-Cognitive Approach to Motivation and  Personality. Psychological Review, 95 (2), 256-273.

Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Ballantine Books Trade Paperback.

Hazard, L. L. (1997). The effects of locus of control and attitudes toward intelligence on study habits of college students. (Doctoral dissertation, Boston University).

Best,

Laurie
www.lauriehazard.com


-----Original Message-----
From: Open Forum for Learning Assistance Professionals [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of Cleveland, Prof. John P.
Sent: Wednesday, May 02, 2012 10:24 AM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Literature on students who do not come for tutoring

Hi Listers,

I am interested in why some students do not come for tutoring (when they know about the service, have been recommended to use the service, know that the service is free and accessible).  Can anyone point me to literature/research done to answer this type of question?  In the mean time, I will peruse back issues of the Journal of the CRLA.

Thank you,

John Cleveland

John P. Cleveland, M.T.S., M.A.
Director, Tutoring Center
Center for Academic Excellence
& Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies Pace University
41 Park Row, Room 204
New York, NY  10038
(212)346-1407 (phone)
(212)346-1520 (fax)
[log in to unmask]
www.pace.edu/tutoring
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