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The Swedish System of Innovation: 
Regional Synergies in a Knowledge-Based Economy

Based on the complete set of firm data for Sweden (N = 1,187,421; November
2011), we analyze the mutual information among the geographical,
technological, and organizational distributions in terms of synergies at
regional and national levels. Mutual information in three dimensions can
become negative and thus indicate a net export of uncertainty by a system
or, in other words, synergy in how knowledge functions are distributed over
the carriers. Aggregation at the regional level (NUTS3) of the data
organized at the municipal level (NUTS5) shows that 48.5% of the regional
synergy is provided by the three metropolitan regions of Stockholm,
Gothenburg, and Malmo/Lund. Sweden can be considered as a centralized and
hierarchically organized system. Our results accord with other statistics,
but this Triple Helix indicator measures synergy more specifically and
precisely. The analysis also provides us with validation for using this
measure in previous studies of more regionalized systems of innovation (such
as Hungary and Norway).

Loet Leydesdorff & Oivind Strand
available at < >

** apologies for cross postings
Loet Leydesdorff 
Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR)
Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam.
Tel. +31-20-525 6598; fax: +31-842239111
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