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A Routine for Measuring Synergy in University-Industry-Government Relations:

Mutual Information as a Triple-Helix and Quadruple-Helix Indicator

Mutual information in three (or more) dimensions can be considered as a
Triple-Helix indicator of synergy in university-industry-government
relations. An open-source routine th4.exe makes the computation of this
indicator interactively available at the Internet, and thus applicable to
large sets of data. Th4.exe computes all probabilistic entropies and mutual
information in two, three, and, if available in the data, four dimensions
among, for example, classes such as geographical addresses (cities,
regions), technological codes (e.g., OECD's NACE codes), and size
categories; or, alternatively, among institutional addresses (academic,
industrial, public sector) in document sets. The relations between the
Triple-Helix indicator -- as an indicator of synergy -- and the Triple-Helix
model that specifies the possibility of feedback by an overlay of
communications, are also discussed. 

Loet Leydesdorff, Han Woo Park, and Balazs Lengyel

December 2012; at  
** apologies for crosspostings

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