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Measuring Triple-Helix Synergy in the Russian Innovation Systems 
at Regional, Provincial and National Levels

Loet Leydesdorff, Evgeniy Perevodchikov, and Alexander Uvarov

We measure synergy for the Russian national, provincial, and regional
innovation systems using mutual information among the three dimensions of
firm size, technological knowledge-base, and geographical locations as an
indicator of potential synergy, that is, reduction of uncertainty in niches.
Half a million data at firm level in 2011 was obtained from the Orbis
database (of Bureau Van Dijk). The firm level data were aggregated at the
levels of eight Federal Districts, the regional level of 83 Federal
Subjects, and the single level of the Russian Federation. Not surprisingly,
the knowledge base of the economy is concentrated in the Moscow region
(22.8%); St. Petersburg follows with 4.0%. Only 0.4% of the firms are
classified as high-tech; and 2.7% as medium-tech manufacturing (NACE, Rev.
2). Except in Moscow itself, high-tech manufacturing does not add synergy to
any other unit at any of the various levels of geographical granularity; it
disturbs instead the regional coordination even in the region surrounding
Moscow ("Moscow Oblast"). In the case of medium-tech manufacturing, there is
also synergy in St. Petersburg. Knowledge-intensive services (KIS; including
laboratories) contribute 12.8% to the economy in terms of establishments and
contribute in all Federal Districts (except the North-Caucasian Federal
District) to the synergy, but only in 30 of the 83 (36.1%) Federal Subjects.
The synergy in KIS is concentrated in centers of administration. Different
from Western-European countries, the knowledge-intensive services (which are
often state-affiliated) thus provide a backbone to an emerging
knowledge-based economy at the level of Federal Districts, but the economy
is otherwise not knowledge-based (except for the Moscow region). 

Available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.3040 .
** apologies for cross-postings

________________________________________
Loet Leydesdorff 
Professor, University of Amsterdam
Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR)
Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam
[log in to unmask] ; http://www.leydesdorff.net/ 
Honorary Professor, SPRU, University of Sussex; Visiting Professor, ISTIC,
Beijing;
http://scholar.google.com/citations?user=ych9gNYAAAAJ&hl=en  

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