***** To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org ***** Measuring Triple-Helix Synergy in the Russian Innovation Systems at Regional, Provincial and National Levels Loet Leydesdorff, Evgeniy Perevodchikov, and Alexander Uvarov We measure synergy for the Russian national, provincial, and regional innovation systems using mutual information among the three dimensions of firm size, technological knowledge-base, and geographical locations as an indicator of potential synergy, that is, reduction of uncertainty in niches. Half a million data at firm level in 2011 was obtained from the Orbis database (of Bureau Van Dijk). The firm level data were aggregated at the levels of eight Federal Districts, the regional level of 83 Federal Subjects, and the single level of the Russian Federation. Not surprisingly, the knowledge base of the economy is concentrated in the Moscow region (22.8%); St. Petersburg follows with 4.0%. Only 0.4% of the firms are classified as high-tech; and 2.7% as medium-tech manufacturing (NACE, Rev. 2). Except in Moscow itself, high-tech manufacturing does not add synergy to any other unit at any of the various levels of geographical granularity; it disturbs instead the regional coordination even in the region surrounding Moscow ("Moscow Oblast"). In the case of medium-tech manufacturing, there is also synergy in St. Petersburg. Knowledge-intensive services (KIS; including laboratories) contribute 12.8% to the economy in terms of establishments and contribute in all Federal Districts (except the North-Caucasian Federal District) to the synergy, but only in 30 of the 83 (36.1%) Federal Subjects. The synergy in KIS is concentrated in centers of administration. Different from Western-European countries, the knowledge-intensive services (which are often state-affiliated) thus provide a backbone to an emerging knowledge-based economy at the level of Federal Districts, but the economy is otherwise not knowledge-based (except for the Moscow region). Available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.3040 . ** apologies for cross-postings ________________________________________ Loet Leydesdorff Professor, University of Amsterdam Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR) Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam [log in to unmask] ; http://www.leydesdorff.net/ Honorary Professor, SPRU, University of Sussex; Visiting Professor, ISTIC, Beijing; http://scholar.google.com/citations?user=ych9gNYAAAAJ&hl=en _____________________________________________________________________ SOCNET is a service of INSNA, the professional association for social network researchers (http://www.insna.org). To unsubscribe, send an email message to [log in to unmask] containing the line UNSUBSCRIBE SOCNET in the body of the message.