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For emotional contagion, also add:

Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. L. & Rapson, R. L. (1993). Emotional contagion.
Current Directions in Psychological Sciences, 2, 96-99.

http://www.elainehatfield.com/ch50.pdf

De Waal finds evidence of emotional contagion in primates as well:

de Waal, Frans (1996). Good Natured. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press.


What I wonder is how can you tell when it is emotional contagion or
cost/benefit analysis (cognitive) coursing through the network?

-Robert



On Thu, Oct 3, 2013 at 3:26 PM, Marc Idelson (¤¨¤¦´Ë) <[log in to unmask]> wrote:

> *****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****
>
> This whole thread (emotion contagion, tipping points) reminds me of
> fractal percolation models in physics. Are they being applied in
> social networks models ?
> --
>
> Marc Idelson (¤¨¤¦´Ë)
>
>
> On Fri, Oct 4, 2013 at 2:22 AM, Moses Boudourides
> <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
> > *****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****
> >
> > Harrison C. White argues in Network Switchings and Bayesian Forks:
> > Reconstructing the Social and Behavioral Sciences:
> >
> > "Ties of a type are both network and domain, both relation and talk.
> > It is talk that switches, not tie¡Xand certainly not persons, they
> > being deposits and byproducts of the process. The substance of a type
> > of tie lies in what reflexive accountings are accepted in that
> > network-domain as warranties, and in what are the presuppositions and
> > entailments. These can all together be approximated as a particular
> > set of accepted stories.
> > Thus, within a particular micro-historical setting, the tie is also a
> > boundary, which comes as the envelope of a joint selection process
> > across story set."
> >
> > If this is the case and furthermore there is access to the textual (or
> > audio-visual, video etc.) content of ties-stories in a social network,
> > then one could use various machine-learning techniques to do something
> > like sentiment (or opinion) analysis, in which sentiments like fear
> > (for example) might arise among the harvested parameters under
> > consideration.
> >
> > However, in a literal sense, what Harrison White insinuates is the
> > importance of edge(tie)-based attributes over actor-based ones. This
> > could mean that one might need to elaborate a sort of assortativity
> > analysis for edge attributes, instead of vertex attributes (already
> > studied extensively). In particular, this would necessitate a
> > comprehensive analysis of multiplexity in social networks, not so much
> > from the point of view of aggregating all the existing multirelational
> > (sub)patterns but mainly from the angle of their (inter)correlations
> > and adjacencies. Note that, if ties are directed, then there are
> > multiple ways to define line correlations and adjacencies, which
> > result to different ways of obtaining useful network aggregations
> > (such as community partitions etc.).
> >
> > --Moses
> >
> > On Thu, Oct 3, 2013 at 8:57 PM, Stephen D. Bird - sbird
> > <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
> >> ***** To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org *****
> >>
> >> Fowler and Christakis¡¦ work on happiness, and others, seems to imply
> that
> >> emotion is socially mediated¡K
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> Fowler, James H., and Nicholas A. Christakis. "Dynamic spread of
> happiness
> >> in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the
> >> Framingham Heart Study." BMJ: British medical journal 337 (2008).
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> Cacioppo, John T., James H. Fowler, and Nicholas A. Christakis. "Alone
> in
> >> the crowd: the structure and spread of loneliness in a large social
> >> network." Journal of personality and social psychology 97.6 (2009): 977.
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> Hill, Alison L., et al. "Emotions as infectious diseases in a large
> social
> >> network: the SISa model." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
> >> Sciences277.1701 (2010): 3827-3835.
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> Stephen Bird     -     Assistant Professor, Political Science; Clarkson
> >> University
> >>
> >> 315-268-3990; (c) 857-753-5507; http://people.clarkson.edu/~sbird/
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> For every complex problem there is an answer that is clear, simple, and
> >> wrong     ~H. L. Mencken
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> From: Social Networks Discussion Forum [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On
> >> Behalf Of John T. Maloney
> >> Sent: Thursday, October 03, 2013 1:21 PM
> >>
> >>
> >> To: [log in to unmask]
> >> Subject: Re: [SOCNET] Fear in Networks
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> ***** To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org *****
> >>
> >> Fear is an emotion. It¡¦s an affected state of consciousness. Are
> emotions
> >> socially mediated? Contagious? Networks? Are emotions homophilous?  Not
> >> sure. Maybe anxious people like other anxious people. Who knows? Lots of
> >> people like scary movies. Do joyful people hangout with other joyful
> people?
> >> If any are true then study of any emotion, joy, sorrow, love, etc.,
> would
> >> probably indicate some network propagation. Interesting question.
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> Meanwhile, where do emotions, opinions and actions begin and start?
> >> ¡¥Diffusion of Innovation¡¦ is well studied. Does ¡¥Diffusion of Emotion¡¦
> make
> >> sense? We all know ¡¥Diffusion of Opinion¡¦ matters. It¡¦s a huge global
> media
> >> business. Can emotions exhibit herd behaviors? Etc.
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> IMO, emotions are innate properties that are relatively sticky and
> >> individual, e.g., people don¡¦t get fearful/scared because someone next
> to
> >> them is scared. Someone gets scared when there is a perceived threat.
> If the
> >> threat comes from an edge, that¡¦s different.
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> For example, would you be sorrowful at a wake for an unknown person?
> Me? No.
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> -j
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> Possible paradox: Would you be joyful at an Irish wake for a known
> person?
> >> Yes, definitely.
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> From: Social Networks Discussion Forum [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On
> >> Behalf Of Valdis Krebs
> >> Sent: Thursday, October 03, 2013 9:01 AM
> >> To: [log in to unmask]
> >> Subject: Re: [SOCNET] Fear in Networks
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> ***** To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org *****
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> Robert, we are talking about both: emergence of opinion/stand in a
> network
> >> and emergence/distribution of fear in a network.  I am running across
> more
> >> and more client situations where it is important to understand fear in
> human
> >> networks, and how it spreads.
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> Mark, thanks for the "Experiments in Social Computation" link... looks
> very
> >> interesting!
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> Valdis
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> On Oct 3, 2013, at 9:56 AM, nativebuddha wrote:
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> ***** To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org *****
> >>
> >> I think it's important to emphasize that we are talking about the
> broader
> >> idea of "changing opinion" in a network, rather than the more specific
> >> concept of "fear". You might find more supporting literature if you
> re-frame
> >> it this way.
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> -Robert
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> On Thu, Oct 3, 2013 at 5:11 AM, Mark Kibanov <[log in to unmask]>
> >> wrote:
> >>
> >> ***** To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org *****
> >>
> >> Michael Kearns in "Experiments in Social Computation"
> >> (Doi:10.1145/2347736.2347753,
> >> http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~mkearns/papers/CACM.pdf) showed interesting
> series
> >> of experiments. One of them showed how a well-connected minority
> changes the
> >> opinion of majority (see Figure 7). The minority may even not know they
> are
> >> minority. He personally called it a "republican phenomena" during his
> >> keynote.
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> Hope, it brings you further.
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> Best regards,
> >>
> >> Mark
> >>
> >>
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
> >>
> >> Mark Kibanov         Tel.: +49-(0)561-804-6253
> >>
> >> [log in to unmask]   www.kde.cs.uni-kassel.de/kibanov/
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> Am 03.10.2013 um 04:57 schrieb Valdis Krebs <[log in to unmask]>:
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >> *****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****
> >>
> >> Looking at the current US government shutdown... it "appears" that a
> small
> >> group of far-right politicians (a minority in their own Republican
> Party)
> >> have sway over the rest of the party (many of whom do not want the
> >> shutdown), but out of fear(apparently) all Republicans are
> supporting/voting
> >> the minority view.
> >>
> >> Can a smart sociologist explain what is going on?  Have any SNA studies
> been
> >> done on how a small minority(~10%) controls a majority in a bounded
> network?
> >> Any good papers on fear in networks?
> >>
> >> Valdis Krebs
> >> http://orgnet.com
> >> http://thenetworkthinkers.com
> >>
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