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Fascinating thread.



On the original thread of chemistry in groups, see "Networks, Diversity, and Performance: The Social Capital of Corporate R&D Units," Reagans, Ray E. and Ezra W. Zuckerman, Organization Science 12: 502-517 (2001).



The two-mode clustering I have done is very much in the spirit of the discussion below, where we describe the clusters as emergent based on participation in multiple events (e.g., clusters of students based on the courses they take). Cluster membership then shapes future friendship formation (2013 paper) and cluster norms shape future behaviors (2008 paper).

Frank, K.A., Muller, C., Mueller, A.S., 2013. The Embeddedness of Adolescent Friendship Nominations: The Formation of Social Capital in Emergent Network Structures.  American Journal of Sociology, Vol 119(1):216-253.<https://www.msu.edu/~kenfrank/The%20Embeddedness%20of%20Adolescent%20Friendship%20Nominations%20revisions%20for%20conditional%20accept%20postsubmitted%205-31%20home%20changes%20accepted.docx>

Frank, K.A., Muller, C., Schiller, K., Riegle-Crumb, C., Strassman-Muller, A., Crosnoe, R., Pearson J. 2008. “The Social Dynamics of MathematicsCourseTaking in high school.” American Journal of Sociology, Vol 113 (6): 1645-1696.<https://www.msu.edu/~kenfrank/papers/social%20dynamics%20of%20mathematics%20coursetaking.pdf>


*Field, S. *Frank, K.A., Schiller, K, Riegle-Crumb, C, and Muller, C. (2006). "Identifying Social Contexts in Affiliation Networks: Preserving the Duality of People and Events. <https://www.msu.edu/~kenfrank/papers/identifying%20positions%20from%20affiliation%20networks.pdf>  Social Networks 28:97-123

Ken





Ken Frank

Professor

Measurement and Quantitative Methods

Counseling, Educational Psychology and Special Education

And

Professor of Fisheries and Wildlife

Room 462 Erickson Hall

Michigan State University

East Lansing, MI 48824-1034 phone: 517-355-9567 fax: 517-353-6393 [log in to unmask]

https://www.msu.edu/user/k/e/kenfrank/web/index.htm





-----Original Message-----
From: Social Networks Discussion Forum [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of Snijders, T.A.B.
Sent: Tuesday, October 21, 2014 3:42 AM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Re: Network Chemistry (continued)



***** To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org ***** Dear John,





You ask for pointers to recent work in the same spirit. I think that the recent article by Lomi and Stadtfeld is a good read in this respect. Since it is in a little-known journal, let me make a plug for it.

Alessandro Lomi and Christoph Stadtfeld (2014). Social Networks and Social Settings: Developing a Coevolutionary View. KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 66, 395-415.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11577-014-0271-8 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11577-014-0271-8> .





Abstract (partial):



One way to think about social context is as a sample of alters. To understand individual action, therefore, it matters greatly where these alters may be coming from, and how they are connected. According to one vision, connections among

alters induce local dependencies—emergent rules of social interaction that generate

endogenously the observed network structure of social settings. Social selection

is the decision of interest in this perspective. According to a second vision, social

settings are collections of social foci—physical or symbolic locales where actors

meet. Because alters are more likely to be drawn from focused sets, shared social

foci are frequently considered as the main generators of network ties, and hence of

setting structure. Affiliation to social foci is the decision of central interest in this

second view. In this paper we show how stochastic actor–oriented models (SAOMs)

originally derived for studying the dynamics of multiple networks may be adopted

to represent and examine these interconnected systems of decisions (selection and

affiliation) within a unified analytical framework.





Cheers, happy reading,



Tom







=========================================



Tom A.B. Snijders



Professor of Statistics and Methodology, Dept of Sociology, University of Groningen



Professor of Statistics in the Social Sciences, University of Oxford

http://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/~snijders





On Tue, Oct 21, 2014 at 6:34 AM, John McCreery <[log in to unmask]<mailto:[log in to unmask]>> wrote:





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                Subject:      Network Chemistry (continued)

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                *****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****



                When I wrote the abstract that began a previous thread with this subject, I

                was responding to Stephen Borgatti and Virginie Lopez-Kidwell's "Network

                Theory" article in the SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis and

                beginning to consider the proposition that besides network flow and network

                architecture theories, SNA might also require a third, as yet undeveloped,

                body of network chemistry theory. Among the responses was one from Barry

                Wellman, who directed my attention to Barry Wellman and S.D. Berkowitz,

                ed., Social Structures: A Network Approach. Having secured a copy of that

                book, I was delighted to find in it a revised version of Ronald Breiger's

                classic article "The duality of persons and groups," which first appeared

                in Social Forces in 1974. I had seen frequent references to this article in

                later work; but now I held it in my hands and could read it.



                What I find in Breiger appears to me to be a set of compelling ideas that

                have shaped the analysis of two-mode networks ever since the article was

                published. Here let me begin with a quote from the opening paragraph.





                "Individuals come together (or metaphorically 'intersect' one another)

                within groups, which are collectivities based on the shared interest,

                personal affinities or ascribed status of members who participate regularly

                in collective activities. At the same time, the particular patterning of an

                individual's affiliations (or the "intersection" of groups within the

                person) defines his or her points of reference and (at least partly)

                determines his or her individuality."



                As I continue to read the article I note that while the possibility that

                the individual members of groups may have different interests, affinities

                or ascribed statuses and that individuality may be more than the sum of

                overlapping group identities are briefly acknowledged, the translation of

                the metaphor into mathematical matrices eliminates these concerns. Both

                individuals and groups are treated as atomic units. They may be joined by

                different types of relationships, giving rise to multi-relational networks;

                but the impact of those relations on the internal structure of groups and

                on processes of group formation and and their implications for group

                activity remain unexplored. This, however, is precisely the molecular level

                at which network chemistry operates and a level of analysis essential, I

                would argue, for the understanding of project teams.



                I am aware that Breiger was writing in the early 1970s, and there may be

                whole libraries of more recent work that address these issues of which I am

                ignorant. If so, I would welcome pointers to the work in question.

                Meanwhile, however, let me review once again why project teams are a

                stumbling block for current forms of network analysis and simulation.





                   1. Project teams are not composed of people who happen to like each

                   other, or seek information or more direct assistance from each other.

                   Project teams are constructed with particular purposes in mind.

                   2. Project teams assemble people who are not like each other except in

                   the very loose sense that they belong to a universe of individuals with

                   skills that may be needed for the project. Homophily is not a factor in

                   decision making.

                   3. Whether individuals are selected for project teams depends on

                   multiple factors.





                   - Necessary skills -- the skills required to play their assigned role.

                   - Awareness--those in charge of recruiting team members may not be aware

                   that an individual is qualified.

                   - Availability--Individuals who are known to possess the necessary skills

                   may be barred other commitments or group boundaries from participating in

                   the team.

                   - Previous experience -- candidates may have worked together before.

                   Successful collaboration may increase their chances of working together

                   again. Previous failures or quarrels may reduce the likelihood of another

                   collaboration.





                In the case of the award-winning Japanese creatives who make up the

                networks that I am studying, we can add additional considerations. Which

                skills are required depends on the kind of ad a creative team is producing.

                TV commercials, for example, require different skill sets from print

                advertising. Team size may be directly affected. Teams that make TV

                commercials are, on average, twice as large as those that produce print

                ads. To which I must add an historic shift in the nature of the industry

                itself: A major factor affecting the composition of the networks I study is

                changes in the relative proportions of different kinds of ads, as TV became

                the dominant advertising medium and print media declined. Shifting

                proportions of different-sized teams directly affect network structure.

                Shifting skill requirements shift the proportions of the various types of

                relationships (creative roles) that link team members to teams. How these

                changes affect the internal dynamics of teams remains an open question.



                As always I am looking for comparable studies or comments that will

                stimulate fresh thinking. I look forward to hearing from anyone who is

                willing to chime in.







                --

                John McCreery

                The Word Works, Ltd., Yokohama, JAPAN

                Tel. +81-45-314-9324

                [log in to unmask]<mailto:[log in to unmask]>

                http://www.wordworks.jp/



                _____________________________________________________________________

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                network researchers (http://www.insna.org). To unsubscribe, send

                an email message to [log in to unmask]<mailto:[log in to unmask]> containing the line

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                Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable



                *****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****

                <div dir=3D"ltr"><div>When I wrote the abstract that began a previous threa=

                d with this subject, I was responding to Stephen Borgatti and Virginie Lope=

                z-Kidwell&#39;s &quot;Network Theory&quot; article in the SAGE Handbook of =

                Social Network Analysis and beginning to consider the proposition that besi=

                des network flow and network architecture theories, SNA might also require =

                a third, as yet undeveloped, body of network chemistry theory. Among the re=

                sponses was one from Barry Wellman, who directed my attention to Barry Well=

                man and S.D. Berkowitz, ed., Social Structures: A Network Approach. Having =

                secured a copy of that book, I was delighted to find in it a revised versio=

                n of Ronald Breiger&rsquo;s classic article &ldquo;The duality of persons a=

                nd groups,&rdquo; which first appeared in Social Forces in 1974. I had seen=

                frequent references to this article in later work; but now I held it in my=

                hands and could read it.&nbsp;</div><div><br></div><div>What I find in Bre=

                iger appears to me to be a set of compelling ideas that have shaped the ana=

                lysis of two-mode networks ever since the article was published. Here let m=

                e begin with a quote from the opening paragraph.</div><div><br></div><div><=

                br></div><div>&ldquo;Individuals come together (or metaphorically &lsquo;in=

                tersect&rsquo; one another) within groups, which are collectivities based o=

                n the shared interest, personal affinities or ascribed status of members wh=

                o participate regularly in collective activities. At the same time, the par=

                ticular patterning of an individual&rsquo;s affiliations (or the &ldquo;int=

                ersection&rdquo; of groups within the person) defines his or her points of =

                reference and (at least partly) determines his or her individuality.&rdquo;=

                </div><div><br></div><div>As I continue to read the article I note that whi=

                le the possibility that the individual members of groups may have different=

                interests, affinities or ascribed statuses and that individuality may be m=

                ore than the sum of overlapping group identities are briefly acknowledged, =

                the translation of the metaphor into mathematical matrices eliminates these=

                concerns. Both individuals and groups are treated as atomic units. They ma=

                y be joined by different types of relationships, giving rise to multi-relat=

                ional networks; but the impact of those relations on the internal structure=

                of groups and on processes of group formation and and their implications f=

                or group activity remain unexplored. This, however, is precisely the molecu=

                lar level at which network chemistry operates and a level of analysis essen=

                tial, I would argue, for the understanding of project teams.&nbsp;</div><di=

                v><br></div><div>I am aware that Breiger was writing in the early 1970s, an=

                d there may be whole libraries of more recent work that address these issue=

                s of which I am ignorant. If so, I would welcome pointers to the work in qu=

                estion. Meanwhile, however, let me review once again why project teams are =

                a stumbling block for current forms of network analysis and simulation.&nbs=

                p;</div><div><br></div><div><ol><li>Project teams are not composed of peopl=

                e who happen to like each other, or seek information or more direct assista=

                nce from each other. Project teams are constructed with particular purposes=

                in mind.<br></li><li>Project teams assemble people who are not like each o=

                ther except in the very loose sense that they belong to a universe of indiv=

                iduals with skills that may be needed for the project. Homophily is not a f=

                actor in decision making.&nbsp;<br></li><li>Whether individuals are selecte=

                d for project teams depends on multiple factors.<br></li></ol></div><blockq=

                uote style=3D"margin:0 0 0 40px;border:none;padding:0px"><div><ul><li>Neces=

                sary skills &mdash; the skills required to play their assigned role.<br></l=

                i><li>Awareness&mdash;those in charge of recruiting team members may not be=

                aware that an individual is qualified.<br></li><li>Availability&mdash;Indi=

                viduals who are known to possess the necessary skills may be barred other c=

                ommitments or group boundaries from participating in the team.&nbsp;<br></l=

                i><li>Previous experience &mdash; candidates may have worked together befor=

                e. Successful collaboration may increase their chances of working together =

                again. Previous failures or quarrels may reduce the likelihood of another c=

                ollaboration.&nbsp;<br></li></ul></div></blockquote><div><br></div><div>In =

                the case of the award-winning Japanese creatives who make up the networks t=

                hat I am studying, we can add additional considerations. Which skills are r=

                equired depends on the kind of ad a creative team is producing. TV commerci=

                als, for example, require different skill sets from print advertising. Team=

                size may be directly affected. Teams that make TV commercials are, on aver=

                age, twice as large as those that produce print ads. To which I must add an=

                historic shift in the nature of the industry itself: A major factor affect=

                ing the composition of the networks I study is changes in the relative prop=

                ortions of different kinds of ads, as TV became the dominant advertising me=

                dium and print media declined. Shifting proportions of different-sized team=

                s directly affect network structure. Shifting skill requirements shift the =

                proportions of the various types of relationships (creative roles) that lin=

                k team members to teams. How these changes affect the internal dynamics of =

                teams remains an open question.</div><div><br></div><div>As always I am loo=

                king for comparable studies or comments that will stimulate fresh thinking.=

                I look forward to hearing from anyone who is willing to chime in.</div><di=

                v><br></div><div><br></div><div><br></div>-- <br>John McCreery<br>The Word =

                Works, Ltd., Yokohama, JAPAN<br>Tel. +81-45-314-9324<br><a href=3D"mailto:j=

                [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]</a><br><a<mailto:[log in to unmask]@wordworks.jp%3c/a%3e%3cbr%3e%3ca> href=3D"http://www.wordworks.jp=

                /">http://www.wordworks.jp/</a<http://www.wordworks.jp/%3c/a>>

                </div>

                _____________________________________________________________________

                SOCNET is a service of INSNA, the professional association for social

                network researchers (http://www.insna.org). To unsubscribe, send

                an email message to [log in to unmask]<mailto:[log in to unmask]> containing the line

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