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Dear John,

You ask for pointers to recent work in the same spirit. I think that the
recent article by Lomi and Stadtfeld is a good read in this respect. Since
it is in a little-known journal, let me make a plug for it.
Alessandro Lomi and Christoph Stadtfeld (2014). Social Networks and Social
Settings: Developing a Coevolutionary View. *KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für
Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie*, 66, 395-415.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11577-014-0271-8.

Abstract (partial):
One way to think about social context is as a sample of alters. To
understand individual action, therefore, it matters greatly where these
alters may be coming from, and how they are connected. According to one
vision, connections among
alters induce local dependencies—emergent rules of social interaction that
generate
endogenously the observed network structure of social settings. Social
selection
is the decision of interest in this perspective. According to a second
vision, social
settings are collections of social foci—physical or symbolic locales where
actors
meet. Because alters are more likely to be drawn from focused sets, shared
social
foci are frequently considered as the main generators of network ties, and
hence of
setting structure. Affiliation to social foci is the decision of central
interest in this
second view. In this paper we show how stochastic actor–oriented models
(SAOMs)
originally derived for studying the dynamics of multiple networks may be
adopted
to represent and examine these interconnected systems of decisions
(selection and
affiliation) within a unified analytical framework.

Cheers, happy reading,
Tom


=========================================
Tom A.B. Snijders
Professor of Statistics and Methodology, Dept of Sociology, University of
Groningen
Professor of Statistics in the Social Sciences, University of Oxford
http://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/~snijders

On Tue, Oct 21, 2014 at 6:34 AM, John McCreery <[log in to unmask]>
wrote:

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> Subject:      Network Chemistry (continued)
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>
> When I wrote the abstract that began a previous thread with this subject, I
> was responding to Stephen Borgatti and Virginie Lopez-Kidwell's "Network
> Theory" article in the SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis and
> beginning to consider the proposition that besides network flow and network
> architecture theories, SNA might also require a third, as yet undeveloped,
> body of network chemistry theory. Among the responses was one from Barry
> Wellman, who directed my attention to Barry Wellman and S.D. Berkowitz,
> ed., Social Structures: A Network Approach. Having secured a copy of that
> book, I was delighted to find in it a revised version of Ronald Breiger's
> classic article "The duality of persons and groups," which first appeared
> in Social Forces in 1974. I had seen frequent references to this article in
> later work; but now I held it in my hands and could read it.
>
> What I find in Breiger appears to me to be a set of compelling ideas that
> have shaped the analysis of two-mode networks ever since the article was
> published. Here let me begin with a quote from the opening paragraph.
>
>
> "Individuals come together (or metaphorically 'intersect' one another)
> within groups, which are collectivities based on the shared interest,
> personal affinities or ascribed status of members who participate regularly
> in collective activities. At the same time, the particular patterning of an
> individual's affiliations (or the "intersection" of groups within the
> person) defines his or her points of reference and (at least partly)
> determines his or her individuality."
>
> As I continue to read the article I note that while the possibility that
> the individual members of groups may have different interests, affinities
> or ascribed statuses and that individuality may be more than the sum of
> overlapping group identities are briefly acknowledged, the translation of
> the metaphor into mathematical matrices eliminates these concerns. Both
> individuals and groups are treated as atomic units. They may be joined by
> different types of relationships, giving rise to multi-relational networks;
> but the impact of those relations on the internal structure of groups and
> on processes of group formation and and their implications for group
> activity remain unexplored. This, however, is precisely the molecular level
> at which network chemistry operates and a level of analysis essential, I
> would argue, for the understanding of project teams.
>
> I am aware that Breiger was writing in the early 1970s, and there may be
> whole libraries of more recent work that address these issues of which I am
> ignorant. If so, I would welcome pointers to the work in question.
> Meanwhile, however, let me review once again why project teams are a
> stumbling block for current forms of network analysis and simulation.
>
>
>    1. Project teams are not composed of people who happen to like each
>    other, or seek information or more direct assistance from each other.
>    Project teams are constructed with particular purposes in mind.
>    2. Project teams assemble people who are not like each other except in
>    the very loose sense that they belong to a universe of individuals with
>    skills that may be needed for the project. Homophily is not a factor in
>    decision making.
>    3. Whether individuals are selected for project teams depends on
>    multiple factors.
>
>
>    - Necessary skills -- the skills required to play their assigned role.
>    - Awareness--those in charge of recruiting team members may not be aware
>    that an individual is qualified.
>    - Availability--Individuals who are known to possess the necessary
> skills
>    may be barred other commitments or group boundaries from participating
> in
>    the team.
>    - Previous experience -- candidates may have worked together before.
>    Successful collaboration may increase their chances of working together
>    again. Previous failures or quarrels may reduce the likelihood of
> another
>    collaboration.
>
>
> In the case of the award-winning Japanese creatives who make up the
> networks that I am studying, we can add additional considerations. Which
> skills are required depends on the kind of ad a creative team is producing.
> TV commercials, for example, require different skill sets from print
> advertising. Team size may be directly affected. Teams that make TV
> commercials are, on average, twice as large as those that produce print
> ads. To which I must add an historic shift in the nature of the industry
> itself: A major factor affecting the composition of the networks I study is
> changes in the relative proportions of different kinds of ads, as TV became
> the dominant advertising medium and print media declined. Shifting
> proportions of different-sized teams directly affect network structure.
> Shifting skill requirements shift the proportions of the various types of
> relationships (creative roles) that link team members to teams. How these
> changes affect the internal dynamics of teams remains an open question.
>
> As always I am looking for comparable studies or comments that will
> stimulate fresh thinking. I look forward to hearing from anyone who is
> willing to chime in.
>
>
>
> --
> John McCreery
> The Word Works, Ltd., Yokohama, JAPAN
> Tel. +81-45-314-9324
> [log in to unmask]
> http://www.wordworks.jp/
>
> _____________________________________________________________________
> SOCNET is a service of INSNA, the professional association for social
> network researchers (http://www.insna.org). To unsubscribe, send
> an email message to [log in to unmask] containing the line
> UNSUBSCRIBE SOCNET in the body of the message.
>
> --047d7bb709c8b474a80505e830c2
> Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1
> Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
>
> *****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****
> <div dir=3D"ltr"><div>When I wrote the abstract that began a previous
> threa=
> d with this subject, I was responding to Stephen Borgatti and Virginie
> Lope=
> z-Kidwell&#39;s &quot;Network Theory&quot; article in the SAGE Handbook of
> =
> Social Network Analysis and beginning to consider the proposition that
> besi=
> des network flow and network architecture theories, SNA might also require
> =
> a third, as yet undeveloped, body of network chemistry theory. Among the
> re=
> sponses was one from Barry Wellman, who directed my attention to Barry
> Well=
> man and S.D. Berkowitz, ed., Social Structures: A Network Approach. Having
> =
> secured a copy of that book, I was delighted to find in it a revised
> versio=
> n of Ronald Breiger&rsquo;s classic article &ldquo;The duality of persons
> a=
> nd groups,&rdquo; which first appeared in Social Forces in 1974. I had
> seen=
>  frequent references to this article in later work; but now I held it in
> my=
>  hands and could read it.&nbsp;</div><div><br></div><div>What I find in
> Bre=
> iger appears to me to be a set of compelling ideas that have shaped the
> ana=
> lysis of two-mode networks ever since the article was published. Here let
> m=
> e begin with a quote from the opening
> paragraph.</div><div><br></div><div><=
> br></div><div>&ldquo;Individuals come together (or metaphorically
> &lsquo;in=
> tersect&rsquo; one another) within groups, which are collectivities based
> o=
> n the shared interest, personal affinities or ascribed status of members
> wh=
> o participate regularly in collective activities. At the same time, the
> par=
> ticular patterning of an individual&rsquo;s affiliations (or the
> &ldquo;int=
> ersection&rdquo; of groups within the person) defines his or her points of
> =
> reference and (at least partly) determines his or her
> individuality.&rdquo;=
> </div><div><br></div><div>As I continue to read the article I note that
> whi=
> le the possibility that the individual members of groups may have
> different=
>  interests, affinities or ascribed statuses and that individuality may be
> m=
> ore than the sum of overlapping group identities are briefly acknowledged,
> =
> the translation of the metaphor into mathematical matrices eliminates
> these=
>  concerns. Both individuals and groups are treated as atomic units. They
> ma=
> y be joined by different types of relationships, giving rise to
> multi-relat=
> ional networks; but the impact of those relations on the internal
> structure=
>  of groups and on processes of group formation and and their implications
> f=
> or group activity remain unexplored. This, however, is precisely the
> molecu=
> lar level at which network chemistry operates and a level of analysis
> essen=
> tial, I would argue, for the understanding of project
> teams.&nbsp;</div><di=
> v><br></div><div>I am aware that Breiger was writing in the early 1970s,
> an=
> d there may be whole libraries of more recent work that address these
> issue=
> s of which I am ignorant. If so, I would welcome pointers to the work in
> qu=
> estion. Meanwhile, however, let me review once again why project teams are
> =
> a stumbling block for current forms of network analysis and
> simulation.&nbs=
> p;</div><div><br></div><div><ol><li>Project teams are not composed of
> peopl=
> e who happen to like each other, or seek information or more direct
> assista=
> nce from each other. Project teams are constructed with particular
> purposes=
>  in mind.<br></li><li>Project teams assemble people who are not like each
> o=
> ther except in the very loose sense that they belong to a universe of
> indiv=
> iduals with skills that may be needed for the project. Homophily is not a
> f=
> actor in decision making.&nbsp;<br></li><li>Whether individuals are
> selecte=
> d for project teams depends on multiple
> factors.<br></li></ol></div><blockq=
> uote style=3D"margin:0 0 0
> 40px;border:none;padding:0px"><div><ul><li>Neces=
> sary skills &mdash; the skills required to play their assigned
> role.<br></l=
> i><li>Awareness&mdash;those in charge of recruiting team members may not
> be=
>  aware that an individual is
> qualified.<br></li><li>Availability&mdash;Indi=
> viduals who are known to possess the necessary skills may be barred other
> c=
> ommitments or group boundaries from participating in the
> team.&nbsp;<br></l=
> i><li>Previous experience &mdash; candidates may have worked together
> befor=
> e. Successful collaboration may increase their chances of working together
> =
> again. Previous failures or quarrels may reduce the likelihood of another
> c=
> ollaboration.&nbsp;<br></li></ul></div></blockquote><div><br></div><div>In
> =
> the case of the award-winning Japanese creatives who make up the networks
> t=
> hat I am studying, we can add additional considerations. Which skills are
> r=
> equired depends on the kind of ad a creative team is producing. TV
> commerci=
> als, for example, require different skill sets from print advertising.
> Team=
>  size may be directly affected. Teams that make TV commercials are, on
> aver=
> age, twice as large as those that produce print ads. To which I must add
> an=
>  historic shift in the nature of the industry itself: A major factor
> affect=
> ing the composition of the networks I study is changes in the relative
> prop=
> ortions of different kinds of ads, as TV became the dominant advertising
> me=
> dium and print media declined. Shifting proportions of different-sized
> team=
> s directly affect network structure. Shifting skill requirements shift the
> =
> proportions of the various types of relationships (creative roles) that
> lin=
> k team members to teams. How these changes affect the internal dynamics of
> =
> teams remains an open question.</div><div><br></div><div>As always I am
> loo=
> king for comparable studies or comments that will stimulate fresh
> thinking.=
>  I look forward to hearing from anyone who is willing to chime
> in.</div><di=
> v><br></div><div><br></div><div><br></div>-- <br>John McCreery<br>The Word
> =
> Works, Ltd., Yokohama, JAPAN<br>Tel. +81-45-314-9324<br><a href=3D"mailto:
> j=
> [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]</a><br><a href=3D"
> http://www.wordworks.jp=
> /">http://www.wordworks.jp/</a>
> </div>
> _____________________________________________________________________
> SOCNET is a service of INSNA, the professional association for social
> network researchers (http://www.insna.org). To unsubscribe, send
> an email message to [log in to unmask] containing the line
> UNSUBSCRIBE SOCNET in the body of the message.
>
> --047d7bb709c8b474a80505e830c2--
>

_____________________________________________________________________
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