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Thanks, Tom.

Looking forward to reading this.

John

On Tue, Oct 21, 2014 at 4:41 PM, Snijders, T.A.B. <[log in to unmask]>
wrote:

> Dear John,
>
> You ask for pointers to recent work in the same spirit. I think that the
> recent article by Lomi and Stadtfeld is a good read in this respect. Since
> it is in a little-known journal, let me make a plug for it.
> Alessandro Lomi and Christoph Stadtfeld (2014). Social Networks and Social
> Settings: Developing a Coevolutionary View. *KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für
> Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie*, 66, 395-415.
> DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11577-014-0271-8.
>
> Abstract (partial):
> One way to think about social context is as a sample of alters. To
> understand individual action, therefore, it matters greatly where these
> alters may be coming from, and how they are connected. According to one
> vision, connections among
> alters induce local dependencies--emergent rules of social interaction that
> generate
> endogenously the observed network structure of social settings. Social
> selection
> is the decision of interest in this perspective. According to a second
> vision, social
> settings are collections of social foci--physical or symbolic locales where
> actors
> meet. Because alters are more likely to be drawn from focused sets, shared
> social
> foci are frequently considered as the main generators of network ties, and
> hence of
> setting structure. Affiliation to social foci is the decision of central
> interest in this
> second view. In this paper we show how stochastic actor-oriented models
> (SAOMs)
> originally derived for studying the dynamics of multiple networks may be
> adopted
> to represent and examine these interconnected systems of decisions
> (selection and
> affiliation) within a unified analytical framework.
>
> Cheers, happy reading,
> Tom
>
>
> =========================================
> Tom A.B. Snijders
> Professor of Statistics and Methodology, Dept of Sociology, University of
> Groningen
> Professor of Statistics in the Social Sciences, University of Oxford
> http://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/~snijders
>
> On Tue, Oct 21, 2014 at 6:34 AM, John McCreery <[log in to unmask]>
> wrote:
>
>> ---------------------- Information from the mail header
>> -----------------------
>> Sender:       Social Networks Discussion Forum <[log in to unmask]>
>> Poster:       John McCreery <[log in to unmask]>
>> Subject:      Network Chemistry (continued)
>>
>> -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>>
>> --047d7bb709c8b474a80505e830c2
>> Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
>>
>> *****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****
>>
>>
>> When I wrote the abstract that began a previous thread with this subject,
>> I
>> was responding to Stephen Borgatti and Virginie Lopez-Kidwell's "Network
>> Theory" article in the SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis and
>> beginning to consider the proposition that besides network flow and
>> network
>> architecture theories, SNA might also require a third, as yet undeveloped,
>> body of network chemistry theory. Among the responses was one from Barry
>> Wellman, who directed my attention to Barry Wellman and S.D. Berkowitz,
>> ed., Social Structures: A Network Approach. Having secured a copy of that
>> book, I was delighted to find in it a revised version of Ronald Breiger's
>> classic article "The duality of persons and groups," which first appeared
>> in Social Forces in 1974. I had seen frequent references to this article
>> in
>> later work; but now I held it in my hands and could read it.
>>
>> What I find in Breiger appears to me to be a set of compelling ideas that
>> have shaped the analysis of two-mode networks ever since the article was
>> published. Here let me begin with a quote from the opening paragraph.
>>
>>
>> "Individuals come together (or metaphorically 'intersect' one another)
>> within groups, which are collectivities based on the shared interest,
>> personal affinities or ascribed status of members who participate
>> regularly
>> in collective activities. At the same time, the particular patterning of
>> an
>> individual's affiliations (or the "intersection" of groups within the
>> person) defines his or her points of reference and (at least partly)
>> determines his or her individuality."
>>
>> As I continue to read the article I note that while the possibility that
>> the individual members of groups may have different interests, affinities
>> or ascribed statuses and that individuality may be more than the sum of
>> overlapping group identities are briefly acknowledged, the translation of
>> the metaphor into mathematical matrices eliminates these concerns. Both
>> individuals and groups are treated as atomic units. They may be joined by
>> different types of relationships, giving rise to multi-relational
>> networks;
>> but the impact of those relations on the internal structure of groups and
>> on processes of group formation and and their implications for group
>> activity remain unexplored. This, however, is precisely the molecular
>> level
>> at which network chemistry operates and a level of analysis essential, I
>> would argue, for the understanding of project teams.
>>
>> I am aware that Breiger was writing in the early 1970s, and there may be
>> whole libraries of more recent work that address these issues of which I
>> am
>> ignorant. If so, I would welcome pointers to the work in question.
>> Meanwhile, however, let me review once again why project teams are a
>> stumbling block for current forms of network analysis and simulation.
>>
>>
>>    1. Project teams are not composed of people who happen to like each
>>    other, or seek information or more direct assistance from each other.
>>    Project teams are constructed with particular purposes in mind.
>>    2. Project teams assemble people who are not like each other except in
>>    the very loose sense that they belong to a universe of individuals with
>>    skills that may be needed for the project. Homophily is not a factor in
>>    decision making.
>>    3. Whether individuals are selected for project teams depends on
>>    multiple factors.
>>
>>
>>    - Necessary skills -- the skills required to play their assigned role.
>>    - Awareness--those in charge of recruiting team members may not be
>> aware
>>    that an individual is qualified.
>>    - Availability--Individuals who are known to possess the necessary
>> skills
>>    may be barred other commitments or group boundaries from participating
>> in
>>    the team.
>>    - Previous experience -- candidates may have worked together before.
>>
>>    Successful collaboration may increase their chances of working together
>>    again. Previous failures or quarrels may reduce the likelihood of
>> another
>>    collaboration.
>>
>>
>> In the case of the award-winning Japanese creatives who make up the
>> networks that I am studying, we can add additional considerations. Which
>> skills are required depends on the kind of ad a creative team is
>> producing.
>> TV commercials, for example, require different skill sets from print
>> advertising. Team size may be directly affected. Teams that make TV
>> commercials are, on average, twice as large as those that produce print
>> ads. To which I must add an historic shift in the nature of the industry
>> itself: A major factor affecting the composition of the networks I study
>> is
>> changes in the relative proportions of different kinds of ads, as TV
>> became
>> the dominant advertising medium and print media declined. Shifting
>> proportions of different-sized teams directly affect network structure.
>> Shifting skill requirements shift the proportions of the various types of
>> relationships (creative roles) that link team members to teams. How these
>> changes affect the internal dynamics of teams remains an open question.
>>
>> As always I am looking for comparable studies or comments that will
>> stimulate fresh thinking. I look forward to hearing from anyone who is
>> willing to chime in.
>>
>>
>>
>> --
>> John McCreery
>> The Word Works, Ltd., Yokohama, JAPAN
>> Tel. +81-45-314-9324
>> [log in to unmask]
>> http://www.wordworks.jp/
>>
>> _____________________________________________________________________
>> SOCNET is a service of INSNA, the professional association for social
>> network researchers (http://www.insna.org). To unsubscribe, send
>> an email message to [log in to unmask] containing the line
>> UNSUBSCRIBE SOCNET in the body of the message.
>>
>> --047d7bb709c8b474a80505e830c2
>> Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1
>> Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
>>
>> *****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****
>> <div dir=3D"ltr"><div>When I wrote the abstract that began a previous
>> threa=
>> d with this subject, I was responding to Stephen Borgatti and Virginie
>> Lope=
>> z-Kidwell&#39;s &quot;Network Theory&quot; article in the SAGE Handbook
>> of =
>> Social Network Analysis and beginning to consider the proposition that
>> besi=
>> des network flow and network architecture theories, SNA might also
>> require =
>> a third, as yet undeveloped, body of network chemistry theory. Among the
>> re=
>> sponses was one from Barry Wellman, who directed my attention to Barry
>> Well=
>> man and S.D. Berkowitz, ed., Social Structures: A Network Approach.
>> Having =
>> secured a copy of that book, I was delighted to find in it a revised
>> versio=
>> n of Ronald Breiger&rsquo;s classic article &ldquo;The duality of persons
>> a=
>> nd groups,&rdquo; which first appeared in Social Forces in 1974. I had
>> seen=
>>  frequent references to this article in later work; but now I held it in
>> my=
>>  hands and could read it.&nbsp;</div><div><br></div><div>What I find in
>> Bre=
>> iger appears to me to be a set of compelling ideas that have shaped the
>> ana=
>> lysis of two-mode networks ever since the article was published. Here let
>> m=
>> e begin with a quote from the opening
>> paragraph.</div><div><br></div><div><=
>> br></div><div>&ldquo;Individuals come together (or metaphorically
>> &lsquo;in=
>> tersect&rsquo; one another) within groups, which are collectivities based
>> o=
>> n the shared interest, personal affinities or ascribed status of members
>> wh=
>> o participate regularly in collective activities. At the same time, the
>> par=
>> ticular patterning of an individual&rsquo;s affiliations (or the
>> &ldquo;int=
>> ersection&rdquo; of groups within the person) defines his or her points
>> of =
>> reference and (at least partly) determines his or her
>> individuality.&rdquo;=
>> </div><div><br></div><div>As I continue to read the article I note that
>> whi=
>> le the possibility that the individual members of groups may have
>> different=
>>  interests, affinities or ascribed statuses and that individuality may be
>> m=
>> ore than the sum of overlapping group identities are briefly
>> acknowledged, =
>> the translation of the metaphor into mathematical matrices eliminates
>> these=
>>  concerns. Both individuals and groups are treated as atomic units. They
>> ma=
>> y be joined by different types of relationships, giving rise to
>> multi-relat=
>> ional networks; but the impact of those relations on the internal
>> structure=
>>  of groups and on processes of group formation and and their implications
>> f=
>> or group activity remain unexplored. This, however, is precisely the
>> molecu=
>> lar level at which network chemistry operates and a level of analysis
>> essen=
>> tial, I would argue, for the understanding of project
>> teams.&nbsp;</div><di=
>> v><br></div><div>I am aware that Breiger was writing in the early 1970s,
>> an=
>> d there may be whole libraries of more recent work that address these
>> issue=
>> s of which I am ignorant. If so, I would welcome pointers to the work in
>> qu=
>> estion. Meanwhile, however, let me review once again why project teams
>> are =
>> a stumbling block for current forms of network analysis and
>> simulation.&nbs=
>> p;</div><div><br></div><div><ol><li>Project teams are not composed of
>> peopl=
>> e who happen to like each other, or seek information or more direct
>> assista=
>> nce from each other. Project teams are constructed with particular
>> purposes=
>>  in mind.<br></li><li>Project teams assemble people who are not like each
>> o=
>> ther except in the very loose sense that they belong to a universe of
>> indiv=
>> iduals with skills that may be needed for the project. Homophily is not a
>> f=
>> actor in decision making.&nbsp;<br></li><li>Whether individuals are
>> selecte=
>> d for project teams depends on multiple
>> factors.<br></li></ol></div><blockq=
>> uote style=3D"margin:0 0 0
>> 40px;border:none;padding:0px"><div><ul><li>Neces=
>> sary skills &mdash; the skills required to play their assigned
>> role.<br></l=
>> i><li>Awareness&mdash;those in charge of recruiting team members may not
>> be=
>>  aware that an individual is
>> qualified.<br></li><li>Availability&mdash;Indi=
>> viduals who are known to possess the necessary skills may be barred other
>> c=
>> ommitments or group boundaries from participating in the
>> team.&nbsp;<br></l=
>> i><li>Previous experience &mdash; candidates may have worked together
>> befor=
>> e. Successful collaboration may increase their chances of working
>> together =
>> again. Previous failures or quarrels may reduce the likelihood of another
>> c=
>> ollaboration.&nbsp;<br></li></ul></div></blockquote><div><br></div><div>In
>> =
>> the case of the award-winning Japanese creatives who make up the networks
>> t=
>> hat I am studying, we can add additional considerations. Which skills are
>> r=
>> equired depends on the kind of ad a creative team is producing. TV
>> commerci=
>> als, for example, require different skill sets from print advertising.
>> Team=
>>  size may be directly affected. Teams that make TV commercials are, on
>> aver=
>> age, twice as large as those that produce print ads. To which I must add
>> an=
>>  historic shift in the nature of the industry itself: A major factor
>> affect=
>> ing the composition of the networks I study is changes in the relative
>> prop=
>> ortions of different kinds of ads, as TV became the dominant advertising
>> me=
>> dium and print media declined. Shifting proportions of different-sized
>> team=
>> s directly affect network structure. Shifting skill requirements shift
>> the =
>> proportions of the various types of relationships (creative roles) that
>> lin=
>> k team members to teams. How these changes affect the internal dynamics
>> of =
>> teams remains an open question.</div><div><br></div><div>As always I am
>> loo=
>> king for comparable studies or comments that will stimulate fresh
>> thinking.=
>>  I look forward to hearing from anyone who is willing to chime
>> in.</div><di=
>> v><br></div><div><br></div><div><br></div>-- <br>John McCreery<br>The
>> Word =
>> Works, Ltd., Yokohama, JAPAN<br>Tel. +81-45-314-9324<br><a
>> href=3D"mailto:j=
>> [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]</a><br><a href=3D"
>> http://www.wordworks.jp=
>> /">http://www.wordworks.jp/</a>
>> </div>
>> _____________________________________________________________________
>> SOCNET is a service of INSNA, the professional association for social
>> network researchers (http://www.insna.org). To unsubscribe, send
>> an email message to [log in to unmask] containing the line
>> UNSUBSCRIBE SOCNET in the body of the message.
>>
>> --047d7bb709c8b474a80505e830c2--
>>
>
>


-- 
John McCreery
The Word Works, Ltd., Yokohama, JAPAN
Tel. +81-45-314-9324
[log in to unmask]
http://www.wordworks.jp/

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