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Aloha all,

As promised, please find below all the references suggested in response to
my question posted in this thread. I (loosely) organized them, and included
a few comments pertaining to their content that were made by those who
suggested them.

Thank you again for all your detailed responses,

Q: When brokerage is negatively associated with economic productivity?

*Related Reviews:*

Long, J., Cunningham, F., Braithwaite, J. 2013. “Bridges, brokers and
spanners in collaborative networks: a systematic review.” BMC Health
Services Research,13:158.

Phelps, C., Heidl, R. & Wadhwa, A. 2012. “Knowledge, networks, and
knowledge networks: A review and research agenda.” Journal of Management,
38 (4): 1115 – 1166.

Stovel, Katherine and Lynette Shaw. 2012. “Brokerage.” Annual Review of
Sociology 38:139– 58.

Stovel, Katherine, Ben Golub, and Eva Meyersson Milgrom. 2011. “Stabilizing
Brokerage” PNAS 108(Suppl.4):21326-21332.

*Related Empirical Evidence:*

Ahuja, G. 2000. “Collaboration Networks, Structural Holes, and
Innovation: A Longitudinal
Study.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 45: 425-455.

Aral, Sinan, and Marshall Van Alstyne. 2011. "The diversity-bandwidth
trade-off." American Journal of Sociology 117(1): 90-171.

Bizzi, L. 2013. “The Dark Side of Structural Holes A Multilevel
Investigation.” Journal of Management, 39(6), 1554-1578.

Comet. Catherine. 2009. “Social capital and profits of small firms in the
French construction industry.” Construction Management and Economics 27(4),
11‑18. (Brokerage is not profitable for all entrepreneurs according to the
uncertainties they face)

Elliott, M., Golub, B., & Jackson, M. O. 2013. Financial networks and
contagion. Available at SSRN 2175056.

J.C. Johnson and D. Parks. 1998. “Communication Roles, Perceived
Effectiveness, and Satisfaction in an Environmental Management Program.”
Journal of Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory,

Kenneth T. Goh, David Krackhardt, Laurie R. Weingart, and Tat Koon Koh.
2014. “The Role of Simmelian Friendship Ties on Retaliation within Triads”,
Small Group Research October  vol. 45 no. 5 471-505

Krackhardt, David. 1999. “The Ties that Torture: Simmelian Tie Analysis in
Organizations.” Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 16:183-210.

Lazega, E. 2001. The collegial phenomenon: The social mechanisms of
cooperation among peers in a corporate law partnership. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. (Brokers between subgroups do less well, likely because
the work is carried out collectively and it is easier to do this with
colleagues in the same office)

Reagans, Ray E. and Ezra W. Zuckerman. 2008. "Why knowledge does not equal
power: the network redundancy trade-off" Industrial and Corporate Change,
Volume 17, Number 5, pp. 903–944.

Reagans, Ray E. and Ezra W. Zuckerman. 2008. "All in the Family; reply to
Burt, Podolny, and van de Rijt, Ban, and Sarkar" Industrial and Corporate
Change, Volume 17, Number 5, pp. 979–999.

Rooks, G., A. Szirmai and A. Sserwanga. 2012. Network Structure and
Innovative Performance of African Entrepreneurs: The Case of Uganda.
Journal of African Economics, 21: 609-636. (Non-linear association between
constraint and innovative performance of Ugandan entrepreneurs)

Tortoriello, Marco, and David Krackhardt. 2010. “Activating cross-boundary
knowledge: the role of Simmelian ties in the generation of innovations.”
Academy of Management Journal 53(1):167-181.

Uzzi, B. 1996. “The sources and consequences of embeddedness for the
economic performance of organizations: The network effect.” American
Sociological Review, 674-698.

Uzzi, B. 1997. “Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: The
paradox of embeddedness.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 35-67.

Walker, Gordon, Bruce Kogut, and Weijian Shan. 1997. “Social capital,
structural holes and the formation of an industry network.” Organization
science 8(2):109-125.

Xiao, Z. and A. S. Tsui. 2007. “When Brokers May Not Work: The Cultural
Contingency of Social Capital in Chinese High-tech Firms.” Administrative
Science Quarterly, 52(1): 1-31. (On the cultural contingency of structural

*Broker characteristics matter: *

Burt, R. S. 1992. Structural Holes: The social structure of competition.
Harvard University Press.

Burt, R. S., Jannotta, J. E., & Mahoney, J. T. 1998. “Personality
correlates of structural holes.” Social Networks, 20(1), 63-87.

Burt, R. S. 2010. Neighbor Networks: Competitive advantage local and
personal. Oxford University Press.

Carboni, I., & Gilman, R. 2012.  “Brokers at risk: Gender differences in
the effects of structural position on social stress and life satisfaction.”
Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 16(3):218-230.

Fleming, Lee, Santiago Mingo, and David Chen. 2007. "Collaborative
brokerage, generative creativity, and creative success." Administrative
Science Quarterly, 52(3): 443-475.

Kalish, Y.  and Robins, G. 2006. “Psychological predispositions and network
structure: The relationship between individual predispositions, structural
holes and network closure.” Social Networks, 26: 56-84.

*Recent insight into identifying brokers:*

Belotti, Elisa. 2009. "Brokerage roles between cliques: A secondary clique
analysis." Methodological Innovations Online, 4: 53-73.

Valente, T. W. & Fujimoto, K. 2010. “Bridging: Locating critical connectors
in a network.” Social Networks, 32:212-220.

*Effect of ego networks on mental health and stress in disaster
settings: *(closure/density
more important when relocated disaster victims have high resource loss &
resources are distant; bridging/structural holes more important otherwise)

*Refs: *

A.J. Faas, E.C. Jones, L.M. Whiteford, G.A. Tobin, and A.D. Murphy. 2014.
“Gendered Access to Formal and Informal Resources in Post-Disaster
Development in the Ecuadorian Andes.” Mountain Research and
Development, 34(3):223-334.

E.C. Jones, A.J. Faas, A.D. Murphy, G.A. Tobin, L.M. Whiteford, C. McCarty.
2013. “Cross-Cultural and Site-Based Influences on which Demographic,
Individual Well-being, and Social Network Factors Predict Risk Perception
in Hazard and Disaster Settings.” Human Nature 24(1):5-32.

E.C. Jones, G.A. Tobin, C. McCarty, A.J. Faas, H. Yepes, L.M. Whiteford,
A.D. Murphy. 2014. "Articulation of Personal Network Structure with
Gendered Well-Being in Disaster and Relocation Settings," in Issues of
Gender and Sexual Orientation in Humanitarian Emergencies. Edited by Larry
Roeder, pp. 19-28. New York: Springer.

Tobin, G.A., L.M. Whiteford, A.D. Murphy, E.C. Jones, and C. McCarty. 2014.
"Modeling Social Networks and Community Resilience in Chronic Disasters:
Case Studies from Volcanic Areas in Ecuador and Mexico," in Resilience and
Sustainability in Relation to natural Disasters: A Challenge for Future
Cities. Edited by P. Gasparini, G. Manfredi and D. Asprone. New York:
Springer Briefs in Earth Sciences.

*Also potentially of interest:*

Kadushin, Charles. 2004. “Too much investment in social capital?” Social
Networks 26(1):75-90.

Mische, A., White, H. 1998. “Between Conversation and Situation: Public
Switching Dynamics across Network Domains.” Social Research, 65(3): 695-724.

Michele Barnes-Mauthe
Research Assistant, PhD Candidate
Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management
University of Hawaii at Manoa
[log in to unmask]

Interested in marine resource management? Check out our new publications on
social networks, social capital, and ethnic diversity in Hawaii's longline
fishery here:, and
here:; and the value of
small-scale fisheries for supporting sustainable livelihoods and human
wellbeing here:

On Tue, Nov 11, 2014 at 1:47 PM, Michele Barnes-Mauthe <[log in to unmask]>

> Aloha SOCNET community,
> I am looking for existing research indicating that in some cases, bridging
> and/or brokerage may cause economic disadvantages for individuals,
> particularly when or if there are strong network subgroups which may
> "penalize" brokers for associating with other groups.
> I am very familiar with Burt's work on brokerage, but my primary takeaway
> from it is that occupying brokerage positions is thought to be a source of
> social capital expected to generate benefits. I am looking for theoretical
> and/or empirical evidence that suggests the opposite - i.e., people who
> broker are significantly less productive (economically), particularly
> when/if there are strong network subgroups that may cause brokers (defined
> as individuals who bridge these network subgroups) to be socially
> ostracized for associating with other groups.
> If anyone can point me in the direction of existing research (in any
> field) that sheds light on this sort of effect, it would be much
> appreciated.
> Thank you in advance for your time,
> Michele Barnes-Mauthe
> Michele Barnes-Mauthe
> Research Assistant, PhD Candidate
> Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research
> Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management
> University of Hawaii at Manoa
> [log in to unmask]
> Interested in marine resource management? Check out our new publications
> on ethnic diversity and social network structure in Hawaii's longline
> fishery here:, the
> global economic value of shark ecotourism here:
> , and the total economic value of small-scale fisheries and their
> contribution to sustainable livelihoods here:

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