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   Barry Wellman
  _______________________________________________________________________
   FRSC                 INSNA Founder               University of Toronto
   http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman           twitter: @barrywellman
   NETWORKED:The New Social Operating System.  Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman
   MIT Press            http://amzn.to/zXZg39        Print $14  Kindle $9
   _______________________________________________________________________

Interdisciplinary and physics challenges of Network Theory

    Network theory has unveiled the underlying structure of complex systems such as the Internet or the biological networks in the cell. It has identified universal properties of complex networks, and the interplay between their structure and dynamics. After almost twenty years of the field, new challenges lie ahead. These challenges concern the multilayer structure of most of the networks, the formulation of a network geometry and topology, and the development of a quantum theory of networks. Making progress on these aspects of network theory can open new venues to address interdisciplinary and physics challenges including progress on brain dynamics, new insights into quantum technologies, and quantum gravity.

Interdisciplinary and physics challenges of Network Theory
Ginestra Bianconi

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Why infectious disease research needs community ecology

    The tools we use to investigate infectious diseases tend to focus on specific one-host˙˙one-pathogen relationships, but pathogens often have complex life cycles involving many hosts. Johnson et al. review how such complexity is analyzed by community ecologists. Ecologists have the investigative tools to probe cause and effect relationships that change with spatial scale in multispecies communities. These techniques are used to monitor the ways in which communities change through time and to probe the heterogeneity that characterizes individuals, species, and assemblages˙˙all issues that are also essential for disease specialists to understand.

Why infectious disease research needs community ecology
Pieter T. J. Johnson, Jacobus C. de Roode, Andy Fenton

Science 4 September 2015:
Vol. 349 no. 6252
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Multiplex networks in metropolitan areas: generic features and local effects

    Most large cities are spanned by more than one transportation system. These different modes of transport have usually been studied separately: it is however important to understand the impact on urban systems of the coupling between them and we report in this paper an empirical analysis of the coupling between the street network and the subway for the two large metropolitan areas of London and New York. We observe a similar behaviour for network quantities related to quickest paths suggesting the existence of generic mechanisms operating beyond the local peculiarities of the specific cities studied. An analysis of the betweenness centrality distribution shows that the introduction of underground networks operate as a decentralising force creating congestions in places located at the end of underground lines. Also, we find that increasing the speed of subways is not always beneficial and may lead to unwanted uneven spatial distributions of accessibility. In fact, for London --
but not for New York -- there is an optimal subway speed in terms of global congestion. These results show that it is crucial to consider the full, multimodal, multi-layer network aspects of transportation systems in order to understand the behaviour of cities and to avoid possible negative side-effects of urban planning decisions.

Multiplex networks in metropolitan areas: generic features and local effects
Emanuele Strano, Saray Shai, Simon Dobson, Marc Barthelemy

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Impact of mobility structure on the optimization of small-world networks of mobile agents

    In ad hoc wireless networking, units are connected to each other rather than to a central, fixed, infrastructure. Constructing and maintaining such networks create several trade-off problems between robustness, communication speed, power consumption, etc., that bridges engineering, computer science and the physics of complex systems. In this work, we address the role of mobility patterns of the agents on the optimal tuning of a small-world type network construction method. By this method, the network is updated periodically and held static between the updates. We investigate the optimal updating times for different scenarios of the movement of agents (modeling, for example, the fat-tailed trip distances, and periodicities, of human travel). We find that these mobility patterns affect the power consumption in non-trivial ways and discuss how these effects can best be handled.

Impact of mobility structure on the optimization of small-world networks of mobile agents
Eun Lee, Petter Holme

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Sex differences in social focus across the lifecycle in humans

    Age and gender are two important factors that play crucial roles in the way organisms allocate their social effort. In this study, we analyse a large mobile phone dataset to explore the way lifehistory influences human sociality and the way social networks are structured. Our results indicate that these aspects of human behaviour are strongly related to the age and gender such that younger individuals have more contacts and, among them, males more than females. However, the rate of decrease in the number of contacts with age differs between males and females, such that there is a reversal in the number of contacts around the late 30s. We suggest that this pattern can be attributed to the difference in reproductive investments that are made by the two sexes. We analyse the inequality in social investment patterns and suggest that the age and gender-related differences that we find reflect the constraints imposed by reproduction in a context where time (a form of social
capital) is limited.

Sex differences in social focus across the lifecycle in humans
Kunal Bhattacharya, Asim Ghosh, Daniel Monsivais, Robin I. M. Dunbar, Kimmo Kaski

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Nonlocal effects and counter measures in cascading failures

    We study the propagation of cascading failures in complex supply networks with a focus on nonlocal effects occurring far away from the initial failure. It is shown that a high clustering and a small average path length of a network generally suppress nonlocal overloads. These properties are typical for many real-world networks, often called small-world networks, such that cascades propagate mostly locally in these networks. Furthermore, we analyze the spatial aspects of countermeasures based on the intentional removal of additional edges. Nonlocal actions are generally required in networks which have a low redundancy and are thus especially vulnerable to cascades.

Nonlocal effects and counter measures in cascading failures
Dirk Witthaut, Marc Timme

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The multi-layer network nature of systemic risk and its implications for the costs of financial crises

    ˙˙We present a multi-layer network approach to quantify systemic-risk.
˙˙Systemic-risk is drastically underestimated when computed on single layers only, as is current practice.
˙˙We introduce a nation-wide systemic-risk index that reflects the public costs for crises.
˙˙The index unveils drastically higher risk than estimated by current risk indicators.
˙˙We demonstrate the validity of the method on a complete dataset of the Mexican financial system.

The multi-layer network nature of systemic risk and its implications for the costs of financial crises
Sebastian Poledna, José Luis Molina-Borboa, Serafín Martínez-Jaramillo, , Marco van der Leij, Stefan Thurner

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Sponsored by the Complex Systems Society.
Founding Editor: Gottfried Mayer.
Editor-in-Chief: Carlos Gershenson.

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