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   Barry Wellman
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Date: Mon, 25 Jan 2016 12:02:03 +0000
From: "[utf-8] Complexity Digest" <[log in to unmask]>
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Subject: [utf-8] Latest Complexity Digest Posts

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at

Global multi-layer network of human mobility

    Recent availability of geo-localized data capturing individual human activity together with the statistical data on international migration opened up unprecedented opportunities for a study on global mobility. In this paper we consider it from the perspective of a multi-layer complex network, built using a combination of three datasets: Twitter, Flickr and official migration data. Those datasets provide different but equally important insights on the global mobility: while the first two highlight short-term visits of people from one country to another, the last one - migration - shows the long-term mobility perspective, when people relocate for good. And the main purpose of the paper is to emphasize importance of this multi-layer approach capturing both aspects of human mobility at the same time. So we start from a comparative study of the network layers, comparing short- and long- term mobility through the statistical properties of the corresponding networks, such as the
parameters of their degree centrality distributions or parameters of the corresponding gravity model being fit to the network. We also focus on the differences in country ranking by their short- and long-term attractiveness, discussing the most noticeable outliers. Finally, we apply this multi-layered human mobility network to infer the structure of the global society through a community detection approach and demonstrate that consideration of mobility from a multi-layer perspective can reveal important global spatial patterns in a way more consistent with other available relevant sources of international connections, in comparison to the spatial structure inferred from each network layer taken separately.

Global multi-layer network of human mobility
Alexander Belyi, Iva Bojic, Stanislav Sobolevsky, Izabela Sitko, Bartosz Hawelka, Lada Rudikova, Alexander Kurbatski, Carlo Ratti

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    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this "Bibliome", the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products-including cannabis-which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far.Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is
an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis.Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015.We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population.This demonstrates that
Instagram contains much drug- and pathology specific data for public health monitoring of DDI and ADR, and that complex network analysis provides an important toolbox to extract health-related associations and their support from large-scale social media data.

Correia RB1, Li L, Rocha LM.

Pac Symp Biocomput. 2016;21:492-503.

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Transition to Chaos in Random Neuronal Networks

    Cortical neural circuits have been hypothesized to operate in a regime termed the ˙˙edge of chaos.˙˙ A new theoretical study puts this regime in a more biologically plausible perspective.

Transition to Chaos in Random Neuronal Networks
Jonathan Kadmon and Haim Sompolinsky
Phys. Rev. X 5, 041030 (2015)

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Emergence of Consensus in a Multi-Robot Network: from Abstract Models to Empirical Validation

    Consensus dynamics in decentralised multiagent systems are subject to intense studies, and several different models have been proposed and analysed. Among these, the naming game stands out for its simplicity and applicability to a wide range of phenomena and applications, from semiotics to engineering. Despite the wide range of studies available, the implementation of theoretical models in real distributed systems is not always straightforward, as the physical platform imposes several constraints that may have a bearing on the consensus dynamics. In this paper, we investigate the effects of an implementation of the naming game for the kilobot robotic platform, in which we consider concurrent execution of games and physical interferences. Consensus dynamics are analysed in the light of the continuously evolving communication network created by the robots, highlighting how the different regimes crucially depend on the robot density and on their ability to spread widely in the
experimental arena. We find that physical interferences reduce the benefits resulting from robot mobility in terms of consensus time, but also result in lower cognitive load for individual agents.

Emergence of Consensus in a Multi-Robot Network: from Abstract Models to Empirical Validation
Vito Trianni, Daniele De Simone, Andreagiovanni Reina, Andrea Baronchelli

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The Social Life of DNA: Race, Reparations, and Reconciliation After the Genome (by Alondra Nelson)

    We know DNA is a master key that unlocks medical and forensic secrets, but its genealogical life is both revelatory and endlessly fascinating. Tracing genealogy is now the second-most popular hobby amongst Americans, as well as the second-most visited online category. This billion-dollar industry has spawned popular television shows, websites, and Internet communities, and a booming heritage tourism circuit.

The tsunami of interest in genetic ancestry tracing from the African American community has been especially overwhelming. In The Social Life of DNA, Alondra Nelson takes us on an unprecedented journey into how the double helix has wound its way into the heart of the most urgent contemporary social issues around race.

For over a decade, Nelson has studied this phenomenon. Weaving together keenly observed interactions with root-seekers alongside historical details and revealing personal narrative, she shows that genetic genealogy is a new tool for addressing old and enduring issues. In The Social Life of DNA, she explains how these cutting-edge DNA-based techniques are being used in myriad ways, including grappling with the unfinished business of slavery: to foster reconciliation, to establish ties with African ancestral homelands, to rethink and sometimes alter citizenship, and to make legal claims for slavery reparations specifically based on ancestry.

Nelson incisively shows that DNA is a portal to the past that yields insight for the present and future, shining a light on social traumas and historical injustices that still resonate today. Science can be a crucial ally to activism to spur social change and transform twenty-first-century racial politics. But Nelson warns her readers to be discerning: for, the social repair we seek can't be found in even the most sophisticated science. Engrossing and highly original, The Social Life of DNA is a must-read for anyone interested in race, science, history and how our reckoning with the past may help us to chart a more just course for tomorrow.

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Self-Repair Networks: A Mechanism Design (by Yoshiteru Ishida)

    This book describes the struggle to introduce a mechanism that enables next-generation information systems to maintain themselves. Our generation observed the birth and growth of information systems, and the Internet in particular. Surprisingly information systems are quite different from conventional (energy, material-intensive) artificial systems, and rather resemble biological systems (information-intensive systems). Many artificial systems are designed based on (Newtonian) physics assuming that every element obeys simple and static rules; however, the experience of the Internet suggests a different way of designing where growth cannot be controlled but self-organized with autonomous and selfish agents. This book suggests using game theory, a mechanism design in particular, for designing next-generation information systems which will be self-organized by collective acts with autonomous components. The challenge of mapping a probability to time appears repeatedly in many
forms throughout this book.

The book contains interdisciplinary research encompassing game theory, complex systems, reliability theory and particle physics. All devoted to its central theme: what happens if systems self-repair themselves?

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Fractional Calculus View of Complexity: Tomorrow's Science (by Bruce J. West)

    This book is not a text devoted to a pedagogical presentation of a specialized topic nor is it a monograph focused on the author's area of research. It accomplishes both these things while providing a rationale for why the reader ought to be interested in learning about fractional calculus. This book is for researchers who has heard about many of these scientifically exotic activities, but could not see how they fit into their own scientific interests, or how they could be made compatible with the way they understand science. It is also for beginners who have not yet decided where their scientific talents could be most productively applied. The book provides insight into the long-term direction of science and show how to develop the skills necessary to successfully do research in the twenty-first century.

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Silent Transformations

    The fifth Para Limes complexity conference is about Silent Transformations.
Silent transformations refer to processes that take place over long time spans, and that go mostly unnoticed until its effects become visible.

An uncountable number of such processes has been shaping and are shaping our universe, our world and our lives. Some of them we have recognized and are studying, like evolution, growing older or climate change. Others we are starting to recognize, like computation changing science, or IT transforming our lives. And still others we have no idea about. Some transformations have an almost timeless character and have nothing to do with humanity and its actions or concerns, like the unfolding of the universe or evolution. Others have a much shorter time line and are very much associated with human actions and concerns, like traffic becoming autonomous, or growing older. Still others are associated with human actions that fingerprint natural processes like climate change, environmental evolution and extinctions.

Silent Transformations

7 ˙˙ 9 March 2016

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

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