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   Barry Wellman

    A vision is just a vision if it's only in your head
    Step by step, link by link, putting it together
   NetLab Network                 FRSC                      INSNA Founder           twitter: @barrywellman
   NETWORKED: The New Social Operating System  Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman

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Date: Mon, 13 Jun 2016 11:03:54 +0000
From: "[utf-8] Complexity Digest" <[log in to unmask]>
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Subject: [utf-8] Latest Complexity Digest Posts

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at

Selfishness Is Learned

    Many people cheat on taxes˙˙no mystery there. But many people don˙˙t, even if they wouldn˙˙t be caught˙˙now, that˙˙s weird. Or is it? Psychologists are deeply perplexed by human moral behavior, because it often doesn˙˙t seem to make any logical sense. You might think that we should just be grateful for it. But if we could understand these seemingly irrational acts, perhaps we could encourage more of them.

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Amplifying the Impact of Open Access: Wikipedia and the Diffusion of Science

    With the rise of Wikipedia as a first-stop source for scientific knowledge, it is important to compare its representation of that knowledge to that of the academic literature. Here we identify the 250 most heavily used journals in each of 26 research fields (4,721 journals, 19.4M articles in total) indexed by the Scopus database, and test whether topic, academic status, and accessibility make articles from these journals more or less likely to be referenced on Wikipedia. We find that a journal's academic status (impact factor) and accessibility (open access policy) both strongly increase the probability of it being referenced on Wikipedia. Controlling for field and impact factor, the odds that an open access journal is referenced on the English Wikipedia are 47% higher compared to paywall journals. One of the implications of this study is that a major consequence of open access policies is to significantly amplify the diffusion of science, through an intermediary like
Wikipedia, to a broad audience.

Amplifying the Impact of Open Access: Wikipedia and the Diffusion of Science
Misha Teplitskiy, Grace Lu, Eamon Duede

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Beyond Zipf's Law: The Lavalette Rank Function and its Properties

    Although Zipf's law is widespread in natural and social data, one often 
encounters situations where one or both ends of the ranked data deviate 
from the power-law function. Previously we proposed the Beta rank function 
to improve the fitting of data which does not follow a perfect Zipf's law. 
Here we show that when the two parameters in the Beta rank function have 
the same value, the Lavalette rank function, the probability density 
function can be derived analytically. We also show both computationally 
and analytically that Lavalette distribution is approximately equal, 
though not identical, to the lognormal distribution. We illustrate the 
utility of Lavalette rank function in several datasets. We also address 
three analysis issues on the statistical testing of Lavalette fitting 
function, comparison between Zipf's law and lognormal distribution through 
Lavalette function, and comparison between lognormal distribution and 
Lavalette distribution.

Beyond Zipf's Law: The Lavalette Rank Function and its Properties
Oscar Fontanelli, Pedro Miramontes, Yaning Yang, Germinal Cocho, Wentian Li

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From Smart Cities to Smart Nations: Opportunities and Risks

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Small groups and long memories promote cooperation

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small,
longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low.

Small groups and long memories promote cooperation
Alexander J. Stewart & Joshua B. Plotkin
Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 26889 (2016)

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EGT: from Biology to Social Systems | EGT-BiSS

    The main aim of the satellite is to gather scholars belonging to different fields of complex systems under the interdisciplinary subject of evolutionary game theory. Evolutionary game theory (EGT) brings together evolutionary principles from biology with concepts of classical game theory. EGT does not need the assumption of rationality and it describes the dynamics and the evolution of the system.

EGT: from Biology to Social Systems
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Satellite workshop at CCS 2016
Amsterdam. 20th of September, 2016

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A Roadmap for a Computational Theory of the Value of Information in Origin of Life Questions

    We hypothesize that carbon-based life forms are only one amongst a continuum of life-like systems in the
universe. Investigations into the role of computational substrates that allow information processing is
important and could yield insights into: 1) novel non-carbon based computational substrates that may have
"life-like" properties, and 2) how life may have actually originated from non-life on Earth. Life may exist
as a continuum between non-life and life and we may have to revise our notion of life and how common it
is in the universe. Looking at life or life-like phenomenon through the lens of information theory may yield
a broader view of life.

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Sponsored by the Complex Systems Society.
Founding Editor: Gottfried Mayer.
Editor-in-Chief: Carlos Gershenson.

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