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This is not a definitive answer, to be sure, but I would look at *rsync* 
to do the data-copying. If you're starting with a blank target disk, it 
will copy everything over. If, however, you're starting with a disk that 
has part of the data already in place, it will ignore files that are 
identical on the source and target, update those on the target that are 
older, and add any from the source that are not on the target at all.

I don't know of a down-side to *rsync*, but maybe more experienced users 
will offer more input.

~ William

On 09/03/2017 02:59 PM, Eben King wrote:
> I have a RAID-1 setup (2x1 TB) that I use for media storage.  I want 
> to migrate to a new(er) set of disks, since the ones it's on are 
> practacally antiques at this point.  Being smarter than the average 
> bear I copied some of the most critical content (maybe 1/3 of the 
> total) to an external HD, so if the entire thing goes tits-up I still 
> have them.  I just got a 2-bay USB3 dock so I figured I'd use it.  One 
> disk was copied successfully, at least about 2/3 of it.  Then 
> something crapped out and I had to resume. Assuming I got if= and of= 
> correct in dd, the rest should be copied successfully too.  The other, 
> I know I screwed up on.  I figured it would happen eventually.
>
> So, what's the way that puts the least stress on the drives to expand 
> the RAID from one disk to two?  Also, what's a more, er, 
> "user-tolerant" way to duplicate disks that can be resumed?
>