***** To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org ***** Note: The Beach Boys and the Mamas and Papas owe me a refund. It ALWAYS RAINS in Southern California this February. Oy vey. Edited complexities below Barry Wellman A vision is just a vision if it's only in your head Step by step, link by link, putting it together Streisand/Sondheim _______________________________________________________________________ NetLab Network FRSC INSNA Founder http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman twitter: @barrywellman NETWORKED: The New Social Operating System Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman http://amzn.to/zXZg39 _______________________________________________________________________ ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Mon, 20 Feb 2017 12:02:36 +0000 From: "[utf-8] Complexity Digest" <[log in to unmask]> Reply-To: [log in to unmask] To: "[utf-8] Barry" <[log in to unmask]> Subject: [utf-8] Latest Complexity Digest Posts Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=76a7c11bce&e=55e25a0e3e Immigrants Do Not Increase Crime, Research Shows http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=884930aad9&e=55e25a0e3e Across our studies, one finding remains clear: Cities and neighborhoods with greater concentrations of immigrants have lower rates of crime and violence, all else being equal. Source: www.scientificamerican.com (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=067683748b&e=55e25a0e3e) Control of finite critical behaviour in a small-scale social system Many adaptive systems sit near a tipping or critical point. For systems near a critical point small changes to component behaviour can induce large-scale changes in aggregate structure and function. Criticality can be adaptive when the environment is changing, but entails reduced robustness through sensitivity. This tradeoff can be resolved when criticality can be tuned. We address the control of finite measures of criticality using data on fight sizes from an animal society model system (Macaca nemestrina, n=48). We find that a heterogeneous, socially organized system, like homogeneous, spatial systems (flocks and schools), sits near a critical point; the contributions individuals make to collective phenomena can be quantified; there is heterogeneity in these contributions; and distance from the critical point (DFC) can be controlled through biologically plausible mechanisms exploiting heterogeneity. We propose two alternative hypotheses for why a system decreases the distance from the critical point. Control of finite critical behaviour in a small-scale social system Bryan C. Daniels, David C. Krakauer & Jessica C. Flack Nature Communications 8, Article number: 14301 (2017) doi:10.1038/ncomms14301 Source: www.nature.com (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=3f12bc1872&e=55e25a0e3e) Network Medicine: Complex Systems in Human Disease and Therapeutics Big data, genomics, and quantitative approaches to network-based analysis are combining to advance the frontiers of medicine as never before. Network Medicine introduces this rapidly evolving field of medical research, which promises to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. With contributions from leading experts that highlight the necessity of a team-based approach in network medicine, this definitive volume provides readers with a state-of-the-art synthesis of the progress being made and the challenges that remain. Medical researchers have long sought to identify single molecular defects that cause diseases, with the goal of developing silver-bullet therapies to treat them. But this paradigm overlooks the inherent complexity of human diseases and has often led to treatments that are inadequate or fraught with adverse side effects. Rather than trying to force disease pathogenesis into a reductionist model, network medicine embraces the complexity of multiple influences on disease and relies on many different types of networks: from the cellular-molecular level of protein-protein interactions to correlational studies of gene expression in biological samples. The authors offer a systematic approach to understanding complex diseases while explaining network medicine˙˙s unique features, including the application of modern genomics technologies, biostatistics and bioinformatics, and dynamic systems analysis of complex molecular networks in an integrative context. By developing techniques and technologies that comprehensively assess genetic variation, cellular metabolism, and protein function, network medicine is opening up new vistas for uncovering causes and identifying cures of disease. Source: www.amazon.com (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=602b38a8df&e=55e25a0e3e) Synergy from reproductive division of labor and complexity drive the evolution of sex Computer experiments, testing features proposed to explain the evolution of sexual recombination, show that this evolution is better described as a network of interactions between possible sexual forms, including diploidy, thelytoky, facultative sex, assortation, bisexuality, and division of labor, rather than a simple transition from parthenogenesis to sexual recombination. Results show that sex is an adaptation to manage genetic complexity in evolution; that bisexual reproduction emerges only among anisogamic diploids with a synergistic division of reproductive labor; and that facultative sex is more likely to evolve among haploids practicing assortative mating. Looking at the evolution of sex as a complex system explains better the diversity of sexual strategies known to exist in nature. The paper shows that Analytical mathematics used in theoretical biology has limitations in tackling complex problems. Switching to algorithmic mathematics, such as ABM, will be important in advancing our understanding of complex issues. More sophisticated models will enlighten more aspects of this complex dynamics with implications for the understanding biological and cultural evolution, intelligence, and complex systems in general. Synergy from reproductive division of labor and complexity drive the evolution of sex Klaus Jaffe Source: arxiv.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=6820ad1326&e=55e25a0e3e) The Lexicocalorimeter: Gauging public health through caloric input and output on social media http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=ea22706f43&e=55e25a0e3e We propose and develop a Lexicocalorimeter: an online, interactive instrument for measuring the ˙˙caloric content˙˙ of social media and other large-scale texts. We do so by constructing extensive yet improvable tables of food and activity related phrases, and respectively assigning them with sourced estimates of caloric intake and expenditure. We show that for Twitter, our naive measures of ˙˙caloric input˙˙, ˙˙caloric output˙˙, and the ratio of these measures are all strong correlates with health and well-being measures for the contiguous United States. Our caloric balance measure in many cases outperforms both its constituent quantities; is tunable to specific health and well-being measures such as diabetes rates; has the capability of providing a real-time signal reflecting a population˙˙s health; and has the potential to be used alongside traditional survey data in the development of public policy and collective self-awareness. Because our Lexicocalorimeter is a linear superposition of principled phrase scores, we also show we can move beyond correlations to explore what people talk about in collective detail, and assist in the understanding and explanation of how population-scale conditions vary, a capacity unavailable to black-box type methods. Alajajian SE, Williams JR, Reagan AJ, Alajajian SC, Frank MR, Mitchell L, et al. (2017) The Lexicocalorimeter: Gauging public health through caloric input and output on social media. PLoS ONE 12(2): e0168893. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0168893 Source: journals.plos.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=40c0a110eb&e=55e25a0e3e) See Also http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=f8e3b646d1&e=55e25a0e3e ============================================== Sponsored by the Complex Systems Society. Founding Editor: Gottfried Mayer. Editor-in-Chief: Carlos Gershenson. You can contribute to Complexity Digest selecting one of our topics (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=0f062b01c3&e=55e25a0e3e ) and using the "Suggest" button. _____________________________________________________________________ SOCNET is a service of INSNA, the professional association for social network researchers (http://www.insna.org). To unsubscribe, send an email message to [log in to unmask] containing the line UNSUBSCRIBE SOCNET in the body of the message.