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Barry Wellman, FRSC                Director, NetLab Network
Founder, International Network for Social Network Analysis

Step by step, link by link, putting it together--Streisand/Sondheim
The earth to be spannd, connected by network--Walt Whitman
It's Always Something--Roseanne Roseannadanna
A day like all days, filled with those events that alter and illuminate our times--You Are There!

NETWORKED: The New Social Operating System  Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman    

-------- Forwarded Message --------
Subject: 	Latest Complexity Digest Posts
Date: 	Mon, 13 Jan 2020 12:05:15 +0000
From: 	Complexity Digest <[log in to unmask]>
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To: 	Barry <[log in to unmask]>

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. 
More at 


Network science is now a mature research field, whose growth was 
catalysed by the introduction of the ‘small world’ network model in 1998 
[BW: sic]. Networks give mathematical descriptions of systems containing 
containing many interacting components, including power grids, neuronal 
networks and ecosystems. This collection brings together selected 
research, comments and review articles on how networks are structured 
(Layers & structure); how networks can describe healthy and disordered 
systems (Brain & disorders); how dynamics unfold on networks (Dynamics & 
spread); and community structures and resilience in networks (Community 
& resilience).

( )

Unscrambled Eggs: Self-Organization Restores Cells’ Order 

To scientists’ surprise, blended mixtures of cytoplasm can reorganize 
themselves into cell-like compartments with working structural components.

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Inferring the causal effect of journals on citations

V.A. Traag

Articles in high-impact journals are by definition more highly cited on 
average. But are they cited more often because the articles are somehow 
"better"? Or are they cited more often simply because they appeared in a 
high-impact journal? Although some evidence suggests the latter the 
causal relationship is not clear. We here compare citations of published 
journal articles to citations of their preprint versions to uncover the 
causal mechanism. We build on an earlier model to infer the causal 
effect of journals on citations. We find evidence for both effects. We 
show that high-impact journals seem to select articles that tend to 
attract more citations. At the same time, we find that high-impact 
journals augment the citation rate of published articles. Our results 
yield a deeper understanding of the role of journals in the research 
system. The use of journal metrics in research evaluation has been 
increasingly criticised in recent years and article-level citations are 
sometimes suggested as
an alternative. Our results show that removing impact factors from 
evaluation does not negate the influence of journals. This insight has 
important implications for changing practices of research evaluation.

( )

Boolean Networks and Their Applications in Science and Engineering

Jose C. Valverde, Henning S. Mortveit, Carlos Gershenson, and Yongtang Shi

Volume 2020, Article ID 6183798

In recent decades, Boolean networks (BN) have emerged as an effective 
mathematical tool to model not only computational processes, but also 
several phenomena in science and engineering. For this reason, the 
development of the theory of such models has become a compelling need 
that has attracted the interest of many research groups in recent years. 
Dynamics of BN are traditionally associated with complexity, since they 
are composed of many elemental units whose behavior is relatively simple 
in comparison with the behavior of the entire system.

BN are a generalization of other relevant mathematical models, which 
appeared previously as cellular automata (CA), inspired by von Neumann 
and studied by Wolfram and others to explore the computational universe, 
or Kauffman networks (KN), proposed by Kauffman in 1969 for modeling 
gene regulatory networks. This gives an idea of the versatility of this 
new paradigm in applications to several branches of science 
(mathematics, physics chemistry, biology, ecology, etc.) and engineering 
(computing, artificial intelligence, electronics, circuits, etc.).

The aim of this special issue was to collect cutting-edge research on 
the different models of BN (deterministic and nondeterministic, 
synchronous and asynchronous, homogenous and non-homogenous, directed 
and undirected, regular and non-regular, etc.). Thus, several research 
groups in this field submitted their recent developments and future 
research directions concerning new models. In addition, original 
research articles showing some applications of BN in science and 
engineering were received.

( )

Mapping the coevolution, leadership and financing of research on viral 
vectors, RNAi, CRSPR/Cas9 and other genomic editing technologies

David Fajardo Ortiz, Annie Shattuck, Stefan Hornbostel

In the present investigation, we set out to determine and compare the 
evolution of the research on viral vectors, RNAi and genomic editing 
platforms as well as determine the profile of the main research 
institutions and funding agencies. A search of papers on viral vectors 
RNAi, CRISPR/Cas, TALENs, ZFNs and meganucleases was carried out in the 
Web of Science. A citation network of 16,746 papers was constructed. An 
analysis of network clustering combined with text mining was performed. 
In the case of viral vectors a long term process of incremental 
innovation in which the clusters of papers are organized around specific 
improvements of clinical relevance was identified. The most influential 
investigations on viral vectors were conducted in the United States and 
the European Union where the main funders were government agencies. The 
trajectory of RNAi research included clusters related to the study of 
RNAi as a biological phenomenon and its use in functional genomics, 
biomedicine and pest
control. A British philanthropic organization and a US pharmaceutical 
company played a key role in the development of basic RNAi research and 
clinical application respectively, in addition to government agencies 
and academic institutions. In the case of CRISPR/Cas research, basic 
science discoveries led to the development of technical improvements, 
and these two in turn provided the information required for the 
development of biomedical, agricultural, livestock and industrial 
applications. The trajectory of CRISPR/Cas research exhibits a 
geopolitical division of the investigation efforts between the US, as 
the main producer of basic research and technical improvements, and 
China increasingly leading the applied research. A set of philanthropic 
foundations played a key role in specific stages of the CRISPR/Cas 
research. Our results reflect a change in the model in the financing of 
science and the emergence of China as a scientific superpower, with 
implications for the trajectory of
development for applications of genomic technologies.

( )

Quantifying the prevalence of assortative mating in a human population

Klaus Jaffe

For the first time, empirical evidence allowed to construct the 
frequency distribution of an index related to the degree of genetic 
relatedness between the parents of about 0.5 million humans living in 
the UK. The results show that a large proportion of the population is 
not the product of parents choosing a mate randomly. Assortative mating 
leading to offspring, that occurs between genetic related individuals, 
is very common. High degrees of genetic relatedness, i.e. extreme 
inbreeding, is rare. The evidence shows that assortative mating is 
highly prevalent in this large population sample. This novel empirical 
result suggests that assuming random mating, as widely done in 
population genetic studies, is not an appropriate approximation to reality.

( )

Guided Self-Organisation 2020 Edinburgh, 8 – 10 June, 2020 

In general, Guided Self-Organisation attempts to reconcile two seemingly 
opposing forces: one is guiding a self-organising system into a better 
structured shape and/or functionality, while the other is diversifying 
the options in an entropic exploration within the available search 
space. At first glance, these two alternatives may even appear 
irreconcilable in principle, given an apparent contradiction between the 
concepts of guidance (implying control) and self-organisation (implying 
autonomy). However, the resolution of this paradox capitalises on the 
distinction between the concepts of “control” and “constraint”: rather 
than trying to precisely control a transition towards the desirable 
outcomes, one puts in place some constraints on the system dynamics to 
mediate behaviors and interactions.

( )

Sponsored by the Complex Systems Society.
Founding Editor: Gottfried Mayer.
Editor-in-Chief: Carlos Gershenson.

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