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A question was asked re research on the need for study skills programs in
college. The following report was taken from LINDEX, a database designed
to answer such questions. There are more materials out there and if you
know of one or more that is not on this list, please email me direct at
[log in to unmask] and I will include them in LINDEX and also will post
them to LRNASST as an addendum to this list.
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Topic  Justification for Postsecondary Programs
Entry  Justification for Learning Assistance                        Admin

In a recent national profile of 204,000 students entering college
fall 1986, 40.3% noted as a very important reason in deciding to go
to college that they wanted to improve their reading and study
skills. From THE CHRONICLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION (January 14, 1987), p.39.
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ALL ONE SYSTEM by Harold L. Hodgkinson. Washington, D.C.: Institute
For Educational Leadership, 1985.
   "Many drop-outs and flunk-outs are bright enough to do good
   college work, but have never learned how to study effectively, nor
   how to take tests and do good written work." [p. 17]
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"Academic Preparation for Work," ACADEMIC CONNECTIONS.
(Office of Academic Affairs, The College Board, Winter,1984.
   "Employers say 'no job is so well defined and specific' as
 to make reasoning irrelevant and the skills implied by studying are
 'definitely applicable'." [p.6]
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"The Basic Academic Competencies," PREPARATION FOR COLLEGE IN THE
1980'S. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1981.
   This set of abilities [study competencies] is different in kind from
   those which precede it. They are set forth here because they
   constitute the key abilities in learning how to learn. Successful
   study skills are necessary for acquiring the other five competencies
     [reading, writing, speaking and listening, mathematical, and
   reasoning] as well as for achieving the desired outcome. Students are
   unlikely to be efficient in any part of their work without them."
   [pp.13-14].
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"What Do Adult Women College Students Really Need? by Kathie Beckman
Smallwood. JOURNAL OF COLLEGE STUDENT PERSONNEL, Vol. 21, No. 1 (January
1980), pp. 65-73.
   In this study of 392 adult women students, time management and
   efficient studying were rated #1 and #3 of seventeen concerns to
   which they responded on a questionnaire.
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"Self-Reported Reasons for Poor Academic Performance of First-Term
Freshmen" by Derrel Hart and Michael J. Keller, JOURNAL OF COLLEGE
STUDENT PERSONNEL, Vol. 21, No. 6 (November, 1980). Pp. 529-534.
   "The freshmen (301 students) in this study placed the greatest
-   responsibility for their low grades on their own lack of motivation,
   improper study habits, and inattention to school work. A majority
   indicated that their failure to schedule time easily, to develop
   adequate study habits, to keep up with course work, and to learn how
   to study well were major or moderate reasons for their lack of
   academic accomplishments."

   Of 375 Miami University students, the top four reasons from a list of
   twenty-nine factors responsible for poor academic performance were
   the following:
           1. Time management...................68%
           2. Poor study habits.................66%
           3. Test taking.......................65%
           4. Failure to learn to study well....56%
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"Using and Interpreting Scores on the CPG Self-Scoring Placement Tests
in English and Mathematics." Princeton, NJ: ETS, 1977.
   In a biographical inventory for a norming sample consisting of a
   spaced sample of 30,039 students tested in 1974-75 by the Comparative
   Guidance and Placement Program of The College Board, fifty-eight
      percent, or 17,465 students requested assistance in study
     techniques,
   forty-seven percent or 14,009 in reading speed and comprehension. The
   sample included 74% Caucasian, White; 22% Black, Afro-American Negro;
   and 1% each of American Indian, Mexican American, Spanish American,
   and Oriental. [p.26]
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"Raising Student Outcomes by Means of Learning Skills," by David Wark in
Dwight Allen and others (editors), REFORM, RENEWAL, REWARD, Proceedings
of International Conference on Improving University Teaching. Amherst,
1975, pp. 137-148.
      "Buried in the corpus of educational literature one will find
   evidence that on the average, at least half a letter grade's worth
   of improvement in content learning follows from instruction in study
   sklills." [p.139]

   "The College Board conducted a survey of one million college-bound
   high school seniors in 1973-74. Of these competent young people,
   one-fifth wanted help in improving their reading and one-third
   expressed desire for assistance in developing college level learning
   skills." [pp. 138-39]
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"Some Reflections on 150 Man-Years Using the Systems Approach in an
Open-Door College" by John E. Tirrell in SYSTEMS APPROACHES TO
CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION IN THE OPEN-DOOR COLLEGE, edited by B. Lamar
Johnson. Los Angeles: UCLA School of Education, 1967, pp. 55-62.
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"Factors Contributing to Attrition in College Populations:
Twenty-Five Years of Research," JOURNAL OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY, Vol.72
(1965), pp. 301-326.
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Topic: Justification for Postsecondary Programs
Topic number: 636
Entry number: 253
System Name: LINDEX(TM)
User Name: Admin
Entry subject: Justification for Learning Assistance
Author: Admin
At Jun 14 22:49:20 1990
Read by: Admin         : at Sat Aug 16 11:45:42 1995
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[log in to unmask]       "The illiterate person is not one who cannot read,
Frank L Christ              but the person who has not learned to learn"
Emeritus, CSU Long Beach               [Freely adapted from Gurjuoy/HRRO]
Visiting Scholar, U of AZ