Gary wrote:

Here is something from another list serv that applies to student's study
and test taking cognitive ability. The information in this article can
be applied to "drowsy studying and test taking."

As an instructor who teachers two developmental math classes in the
evening, I have students who work during the day.  I have always
permitted students to take their tests during the day or on Saturday in
the college testing center.  After reading this study, it appears that
evening test scores could be a measuring student fatigue.  My day
reading and math students who do not work do not do as well as the
working evening students.  However, I believe this is due to different

Student should also be made aware of sleep deprivation cause by driving
home after the last class of the day.

BW1270  DEC 15,1997       9:18  PACIFIC      12:18  EASTERN

Foundation asks Holiday Drivers to be Both Sober and Alert; New Study
Confirms Serious Driver Impairment Due to Sleepiness

    Feature Writers/Travel/Safety Writers

    WASHINGTON--(BUSINESS WIRE FEATURES)--Dec. 15, 1997--As travelers
crowd the
roadways this holiday season, the National Sleep Foundation (NSF) urges
all drivers to understand
the risks of drowsy driving - and take steps to prevent them.
    Holiday trips "over the river and through the woods" could end in
tragedy if the family driver is
drowsy or falls asleep behind the wheel.
    While anti-drunk driving messages typically flood holiday season TV
commercials, newspaper
articles and public awareness campaigns, the dangers of drowsy driving
are often overlooked.
What's more, NSF studies have shown that few Americans know how alcohol
and drugs, including
sedating over-the-counter medications, can interact with fatigue or
sleep deprivation to raise the risk
of crashes even higher.
    Driver fatigue is the primary cause of at least 100,000
police-reported crashes every year,
according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. These
crashes result in more than
1,500 deaths and 71,000 injuries annually. The NSF and other experts
believe that these numbers
underestimate the full scope of the problem.
    The 1995 NSF Gallup Survey "Sleep in America" revealed that half
(52%) of all adults had, in
the past year, driven a car or other vehicle while feeling drowsy.
Thirty percent reported actually
dozing off at the wheel. Holiday Activity Increases Risk of Crashes
    During the winter holidays, increased social activities, company
parties, hectic schedules and
shopping trips all contribute to fatigue and the likeliness of a vehicle
crash. Intoxicated party-goers
are discouraged from getting behind the wheel in the wee hours of the
New Year. The National
Sleep Foundation wants sleepy drivers to surrender their keys as well.
    Driving impairment due to sleepiness is as serious, and according to
a new study, as measurable,
as that caused by alcohol consumption.
    In "Equating the Performance Impairment Associated with Sustained
Wakefulness and Alcohol
Intoxication," Drew Dawson, PhD, of the Centre for Sleep Research at the
University of South
Australia, compared the cognitive and motor skills impairment caused by
sleep deprivation to that
caused by alcohol consumption.
    After ten hours of sustained wakefulness, student subjects'
performance on a series of tests began
to deteriorate steadily from pre-experiment levels. After 18 hours
without sleep, the students
performed as poorly on the tests as they had with a blood alcohol
concentration (BAC) of 0.05%.
    After 24 hours without sleep, their performance dropped to that of a
person with a BAC of
0.096%. The legal limit in most states is a BAC of 0.10%. Sleep Well
Before Setting Out
    The National Sleep Foundation recommends regularly practicing good
sleep behavior, but
especially before setting out on a long drive. For a good night's sleep:
Avoid caffeine, nicotine and
alcohol in the late afternoon and evening, exercise regularly but more
than three hours before
bedtime, and use the bed for nothing but sleep and sex.
    While on the road, the NSF's Drive Alert ... Arrive Alive program
director, Darrel Drobnich,
suggests the following to sober drivers suffering from sleepiness: "Take
turns driving with a partner.
    "Pull over at a safe place for a short nap or drink a caffeinated
beverage for short-term alertness.
And if, after a night of revelry, you are too tired to drive, find a
safer way home or plan to spend the
night somewhere else."
    The National Sleep Foundation is an independent nonprofit
organization that promotes public
understanding of sleep and sleep disorders and supports sleep-related
education, research and
advocacy to improve public health and safety.
    The Foundation's Drive Alert ... Arrive Alive program focuses on
increasing public awareness of
the risks of drowsy driving. Visit the NSF Web site,, or call the
NSF's fax-on-demand service 1-888-NSF-SLEEP, for more information on
sleep, sleep disorders
and drowsy driving.


   CONTACT:  National Sleep Foundation
             Heidi Wunder, 202/347-3471